Umewaen: Journal of Benin & Edoid Studies: Osweego, NY. The modern-looking corporate building is decorated with cowries the size of windows. Scrying through the use of reflective water surfaces, mirrors, or the casting of lots were among the most widespread forms of divinatory practice. [33], Every civilization that developed in pre-Columbian Mexico, from the Olmecs to the Aztecs, practiced divination in daily life, both public and private. However, divination became viewed as a pagan practice by Christian emperors during ancient Rome. Lugira, Aloysius Muzzanganda. Since Africa is a large continent with many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting divination. pp 31. Blood type remains a popular form of divination from physiology. The Poe translated to English means “moon boards”. It was upheld by prophetic tradition and relied almost exclusively on text, specifically the Qur’an (which carried a table for guidance) and poetry, as a development of bibliomancy. [33] In the Mayan Popol Vuh, the creator gods Xmucane and Xpiacoc perform divinatory hand casting during the creation of people. According to him, the belief in spirits and ancestors is the most important element of African religions. p 21. [6][1] The role of humanity is generally seen as one of harmonizing nature with the supernatural. 2016. 2016. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling, divination has a more formal or ritualistic element and often contains a more social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine. Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. The introduction of such cards began by the 1930s and reached prominence 1970s. [39], For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir (the Star of Sirius). S. Mbiti, John (1991). The most famous of these is the boy king Tutankhamun’s gold funerary mask, which was placed on his mummy and weighed a whopping 22.5 pounds (10 kilos). Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, and being honest, trustworthy, and courageous. Among the more common hallucinogenic plants used in divination are morning glory, jimson weed, and peyote. [34] Some recognize a dual god and goddess such as Mawu-Lisa. For the Kikuyu, according to their primary supreme creator, Ngai, acting through the lesser deities, is believed to speak to and be capable of guiding the virtuous person as one's conscience. [38], Divination is widespread throughout Africa. Like Egyptian Isis and later Greek Diana, Osun is the goddess of love and is widely beloved. pp 26. African traditional religion. The most common act of divination in Taiwan is called the Poe, Bao’an is not the actual name of the village, but for privacy purposes that is what it will be called. This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 17:22. [17] Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. The ancestors are generally believed to reside in an ancestral realm (spiritworld), while some believe that the ancestors became equal in power to deities.[29]. Any personal inconvenience will almost immediately be more than compensated for. Divination (from Latin divinare, 'to foresee, to foretell, to predict, to prophesy',[2] related to divinus, 'divine'), or "to be inspired by a god,"[3] is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual. The courtly sanction and elite patronage of Muslim rulers benefited astrologers’ intellectual statues.[20]. Divination has long been criticized. The core principle that meaning derives from a unique occupied position is identical to the core principle of astrology. In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. According to Clemmont E. Vontress, the various religious traditions of Africa are united by a basic Animism. In the United States Vudon is more predominant in the states along the Gulf of Mexico. African traditional medicine is a form of holistic health care system organized into three levels of specialty, namely divination, spiritualism, and herbalism. "Power and Protection: Islamic Art and the Supernatural. Visions derived from hallucinogens were another important form of divination, and are still widely used among contemporary diviners of Mexico. [23], Dream interpretation, or oneiromancy (‘ilm ta’bir al-ru’ya), is more specific to Islam than other divinatory science, largely because of the Qur’an’s emphasis on the predictive dreams of Abraham, Yusuf, and Muhammad. Two men hold this chair by its legs before an altar, while the incense is being burned, and the supernatural agent is asked to descend into the chair. See more ideas about african symbols, african, symbols. Edited by F Leoni.". He also notes that most modern African folk religions were strongly influenced by non-African religions, mostly Christianity and Islam and thus may differ from the ancient forms. To make sure the answer is definitely a yes, the blocks must fall in a “yes” position three times in a row. In some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God regarding the way a person or a community lives. Only those who have been initiated as Saltigues (the Serer high priests and priestesses) can divine the future. As such, magazines targeted at women in their early-to-mid twenties feature the highest concentration of personality assessment guides. Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. Leoni, F, C Gruber, and P Lory. Feb 22, 2014 - Explore Claudine Brown's board "African Symbols", followed by 180 people on Pinterest. Stemming from Western influences, body reading or ninsou, determines personality traits based on body measurements. pp 26-27. In Islamic practice in Senegal and Gambia, just like many other West African countries, diviners and religious leaders and healers were interchangeable because Islam was closely related with esoteric practices (like divination), which were responsible for the regional spread of Islam. As scholars learned esoteric sciences, they joined local non-Islamic aristocratic courts, who quickly aligned divination and amulets with the “proof of the power of Islamic religion.”[29] So strong was the idea of esoteric knowledge in West African Islam, diviners and magicians uneducated in Islamic texts and Arabic bore the same titles as those who did. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions. Some African religions adopted different views through the influence of Islam or even Hinduism.[36]. Leoni, F, C Gruber, and P Lory. [21][22] New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world. [33] This includes also nature, elementary and animal spirits. “Gods, Ghosts, and Ancestors: The Folk Religion of a Taiwanese Village.” The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. [12] Fortune-telling and other forms of divination were widespread through the Middle Ages. Raleigh, NC: SI. [citation needed], Seers were not in direct contact with the gods; instead, they were interpreters of signs provided by the gods. In the modern era, it has been dismissed by the scientific community and skeptics as being superstition; experiments do not support the idea that divination techniques can actually predict the future more reliably or precisely than would be possible without it. We don’t know how these masks were used though. Among the ... West African masquerades, in particular, belie the generalization that in traditional African cultures there is no such thing as art for art's sake. [33], Although Japan retains a history of traditional and local methods of divination, such as onmyōdō, contemporary divination in Japan, called uranai, derives from outside sources. Introduction to African religion. The “science of the sand” (‘ilm al-raml), otherwise translated as geomancy, is “based on the interpretation of figures traced on sand or other surface known as tetragrams.”[21] It is a good example of Islamic divination at a popular level. [35], Individuals can also assess their own and others' personalities according to physical characteristics. According to Gottlieb and Mbiti: The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and culture. [15], Småland is famous for Årsgång, a practice which occurred until the early 19th century in some parts of Småland. ", —— n.d. "Tantalizing tarot and cute cartomancy in Japan. [citation needed], The disadvantage of seers was that only direct yes-or-no questions could be answered. [40][41], Specialized diviners called Ob'guega (doctor of Oguega oracle), as well as Ob'Oronmila (doctor of Oronmila oracle) from the Edo people of West Africa for thousands, have used divination as a means of foretelling the past, present and future. Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. Rohsenow, Hill Gates, and David K. Jordan. The degree to which seers were honest depends entirely on the individual seers. His name means "smoking mirror," a reference to a device used for divinatory scrying. p 17. 2016. "Object and Objectivity in Divination.". Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. Gods were either self-created or evolved from spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the people. 17–19, Parrinder, Geoffrey. [23][24][20] San religion is generally non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. Fortune-telling, on the other hand, is a more everyday practice for personal purposes. Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. 2016. 2016. [13] In the constitution of 1572 and public regulations of 1661 of Kur-Saxony, capital punishment was used on those predicting the future. 2016. "Power and Protection: Islamic Art and the Supernatural. [citation needed]. Because the seers had such power over influential individuals in ancient Greece, many were skeptical of the accuracy and honesty of the seers. David Zeitlyn and others on African Divination systems: This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 22:51. The Benin Monarchy, Olokun & Iha Ominigbon. [4] Used in various forms throughout history, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens, or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency.[5]. 2016. “The skyrocketing cowry prices are now a scandal. Both oracles and seers in ancient Greece practiced divination. These show masks that look a lot like contemporary West African masks and date to about 11,000 years ago. There are also religions with a single Supreme being (Chukwu, Nyame, Olodumare, Ngai, Roog, etc.). Throughout Africa, art objects are used in the divination of the supernatural causes of illness. Astrologers, trained as scientists and astronomers, were able to interpret the celestial forces that ruled the "sub-lunar" to predict a variety of information from lunar phases and drought to times of prayer and the foundation of cities. There is a small wooden chair, and around the sides of the chair are small pieces of wood that can move up and down in their sockets, this causes a clicking sounds when the chair is moved in any way. [38] Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide, waxing and waning moon, rain and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. ISBN 978-0-87099-933-8. The will of the gods or spirits is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. The West African central bank (the BCEAO — Banque Centrale des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest) has its headquarters in Benin. "Kings, Magic & Medicine". [24] Dream interpretation was always tied to Islamic religious texts, providing a moral compass to those seeking advice. [28], Nigerian American professor of indigenous African religions at Harvard University, Jacob Olupona summarized the many traditional African religions as complex animistic religious traditions and beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic "colonization" of Africa. Divination can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. As the blocks are being dropped the question is said in a murmur, and if the answer is yes, the blocks are dropped again. I started asking the question of who am I meaning all the way back to my roots in Africa. In: Island Dynamics Conference on Folk Belief & Traditions of the Supernatural: Experience, Place, Ritual, & Narrative. [19] Astronomy was made a distinct science by intellectuals who did not agree with the former, although distinction may not have been made in daily practice, where astrology was technically outlawed and only tolerated if it was employed in public. The practitioner needed to be skilled enough to apply the individual dream to general precedent while appraising the singular circumstances. She is known for healing the sick, cheering the sad, bringing music, song and dance, as well as bringing fertility and prosperity. Personality can also be divined using cardinal directions, the four elements (water, earth, fire, air), and yin-yang. Many Aztec gods, including central creator gods, were described as diviners and were closely associated with sorcery. Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. Also, this practice can also give rise to those in these trances uttering words which, when interpreted by a culturally educated initiate or diviner, can provide insight into appropriate directions which the community (or individual) might take in accomplishing its goal. Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle). Leoni, F, C Gruber, and P Lory. 2016. This builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their situational manifestations in daily life. A belief in ancestors also testifies to the inclusive nature of traditional African spirituality by positing that deceased progenitors still play a role in the lives of their living descendants. She pours libations, a West African ritual used to honor ancestors — not only her congregation’s, but freedom fighters, cultural and spiritual figures, victims of … The adaptation of the Western divination method of tarot cards into Japanese culture presents a particularly unique example of contemporary divination as this adaptation mingles with Japan's robust visual culture. Galvan, Dennis Charles, "The State Must be our Master of Fire : How Peasants Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal", Berkeley, University of California Press, (2004), pp 86-135, "Lewis and Short's Latin Lexicon via the Perseus Project (http://www.perseus.tufts.edu)", "LacusCurtius • Greek and Roman Divination (Smith's Dictionary, 1875)", "Lucian of Samosata : Alexander the False Prophet", "Council of Trullo - Apostolic Confraternity Seminary", "Wiccan Priest Fights Local Ordinance Banning Fortune Telling (Louisiana)", "Swedish year walk: from folk tradition to computer game. Schielke, Joska Samuli., and Liza. [34] Contemporary methods of divination in Japan include both Western and Chinese astrology, geomancy or feng shui, tarot cards, I Ching (Book of Changes), and physiognomy (methods of reading the body to identify traits). [40] With a long farming tradition, the Serer high priests and priestesses (Saltigue) deliver yearly sermons at the Xooy Ceremony (divination ceremony) in Fatick before Yoonir's phase in order to predict winter months and enable farmers to start planting.[41]. Shetland Isles, UK, 24–30 March 2014", Seeing Stars: Astrolabes and the Islamic World, "People Types: Personality Classification in Japanese Women's Magazines", "Tantalizing Tarot and Cute Cartomancy in Japan", Art and oracle: African art and rituals of divination, Witchcraft and divination in the Old Testament, A Dialogue Concerning Witches and Witchcrafts, Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Divination&oldid=999981325, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, —— n.d. "People Types: Personality classification in Japanese women's magazines. If your birthday falls in any of the following periods, a Green Jade of the color listed can be a valuable conduit to your Guardian Angel. Each attempt to reveal glimpses of an individual's destiny, productive and inhibiting traits, future parenting techniques, and compatibility in marriage. Some would also say that Gideon also practiced divination, though when he uses a piece of fleece or wool in Judges 6:36-40, he is not attempting to predict the outcome of an important battle; rather, he is communicating with God. Once in this position, the blocks are dropped and the future can be understood depending on their landing. Japanese tarot cards are created by professional artists, advertisers, and fans of tarot. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. They have replaced indigenous African religions, but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems. Diviner (also known as priest) are also sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. An African understanding, The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions, "US study sheds light on Africa's unique religious mix", Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. pp 10, 16-17. However, some would claim that divination is indeed practiced in the Bible, such as in Exodus 28, when the Urim and Thummim are mentioned. Traditional Niger-Congo religion also included polytheistic and animistic elements. All aspects of weather, thunder, lightning, rain, day, moon, sun, stars, and so on may become amenable to control through the cosmology of African people. [37] The deities and spirits are honored through libation or sacrifice (of animals, vegetables, cooked food, flowers, semi-precious stones and precious metals). [15], Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. If the seer gave consistent answers, the advice was considered valid. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Basic Yoruba belief involves ritual practices such as singing, dancing, drumming, spirit possession, ritual healing, respect for ancestors and divination. Leoni, F, C Gruber, and P Lory. [30], West and Central African religious practices generally manifest themselves in communal ceremonies or divinatory rites in which members of the community, overcome by force (or ashe, nyama, etc. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. If the blocks land one rounded and one flat, the Deity indicate "Yes" or positive. The face is the most commonly analyzed feature, with eye size, pupil shape, mouth shape, and eyebrow shape representing the most important traits. The one edge is rounded while the other is flat; the two are mirror images. Natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs. Generally occurring on Christmas and New Year's Eve, it is a practice in which one would fast and keep themselves away from light in a room until midnight to then complete a set of complex events to interpret symbols encountered throughout the journey to foresee the coming year. [citation needed], The Yoruba people of West Africa are internationally known for having developed the Ifá system, an intricate process of divination that is performed by an Awo, an initiated priest or priestess of Orunmila, the spirit of the Yoruba oracle. [11], In 692 the Quinisext Council, also known as the "Council in Trullo" in the Eastern Orthodox Church, passed canons to eliminate pagan and divination practices. That role fell to the seers (Greek: μάντεις). The function of ancient Egyptian masks, however, is better known. The Dogon are an ethnic group living in the central plateau region of the country of Mali, in the West of the African continent. Neither force would advance until the seer revealed appropriate omens. In her form as the mother of salt waters, she is known as Yemaya. Leoni, F, C Gruber, and P Lory. The characters on the table are then traced and these are said to be written by the god who possessed the chair, these characters are then interpreted. 3, 1974, p. 478., doi:10.2307/2052956. pp 26-31. For example, if a general wanted to know if the omens were proper for him to advance on the enemy, he would ask his seer both that question and if it were better for him to remain on the defensive. “Power and Protection: Islamic Art and the Supernatural.” Edited by F Leoni. If both fall flat side up or both fall rounded side up, that can be taken as a failure of the deity to agree. Leoni, F, C Gruber, and P Lory. Japanese tarot cards were originally created by men, often based on the Rider-Waite-Smith tarot published by the Rider Company in London in 1909. The Poe consists of two wood or bamboo blocks cut into the shape of a crescent moon. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. Ancestors can offer advice and bestow good fortune and honor to their living dependents, but they can also make demands, such as insisting that their shrines be properly maintained and propitiated. “Divination and Islam: Existential Perspectives in the Study of Ritual and Religious Praxis in Senegal and Gambia.”, Francis, Edgar W. "Magic and Divination in the Medieval Islamic Middle East.". An upturned mouth may be cheerful, and a triangle eyebrow may indicate that someone is strong-willed. [1] Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs and festivals,[2][3] include belief in an amount of higher and lower gods, sometimes including a supreme creator or force, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. “Power and Protection: Islamic Art and the Supernatural.” Edited by F Leoni. “Power and Protection: Islamic Art and the Supernatural.” Edited by F Leoni. The Divinatory meaning of Jade: By acting unselfishly now you are storing goodwill for yourself in the future. The hiera entailed the seer slaughtering a sheep and examining its liver for answers regarding a more generic question; the sphagia involved killing a young female goat by slitting its throat and noting the animal's last movements and blood flow. "Power and Protection: Islamic Art and the Supernatural." Debevec. [14] Laws forbidding divination practice continue to this day. pp 13, 16-17. Even when performances are associated with ritual and belief, aesthetics and theatricality are never ignored. [32], Followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors. [35], An import to Japan, Chinese zodiac signs based on the birth year in 12 year cycles (rat, ox, tiger, hare, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, cock, dog, and boar) are frequently combined with other forms of divination, such as so-called 'celestial types' based on the planets (Saturn, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Mercury, or Uranus). [8], The Oracle of Amun at the Siwa Oasis was made famous when Alexander the Great visited it after conquering Egypt from Persia in 332 BC.[9]. This facilitates better control and transformation of these energies into positive, culturally appropriate behavior, thought, and speech. In this state, depending upon the region, drumming or instrumental rhythms played by respected musicians (each of which is unique to a given deity or ancestor), participants embody a deity or ancestor, energy or state of mind by performing distinct ritual movements or dances which further enhance their elevated consciousness. 33, no. The Santería religion includes many traditions of West African (mainly Yoruba) origin, notably praying to orishas (divine emissaries), many of which have been formally identified with Roman Catholic saints. [citation needed], Attempt to gain insight into a question or situation, "Divining" redirects here. ", Silva, Sonia. [16], Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. Peavy, D., (2009). [citation needed], During battle, generals would frequently ask seers at both the campground (a process called the hiera) and at the battlefield (called the sphagia). For pseudoscientific attempts to find water or other things, see, Leoni, F, C Gruber, and P Lory. Main article: African divination See also: Divination. [26][20][21][27], Traditional African medicine is also directly linked to traditional African religions. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [18], Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. [25], Some researchers, including historical ethnolinguist Christopher Ehret, suggest that certain monotheistic concepts, such as the belief in a creator god or force (next to other gods, deities and spirits) are ancient and indigenous among peoples of the Niger-Congo ethnolinguistic family (of much of West Africa and Central Africa) and date to the beginning of their history, in a form substantially different from the monotheism found in Abrahamic religions. [6][7] In antiquity it was attacked by philosophers such as the Academic skeptic Cicero in De Divinatione and the Pyrrhonist Sextus Empiricus in Against the Astrologers. Tezcatlipoca is the patron of sorcerers and practitioners of magic. Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. 2016. [citation needed], A more serious type of divination is the Kiō-á. Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. The traditional healer provides health care services based on culture, religious background, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that are prevalent in his community. [36] Since, the practice of Japanese tarot has become overwhelmingly feminine and intertwined with kawaii culture. “Power and Protection: Islamic Art and the Supernatural.” Edited by F Leoni. [citation needed], Personality typing as a form of divination has been prevalent in Japan since the 1980s. Particular divination methods vary by culture and religion. "Religions of South Africa" pp. Some sacred or holy locations for traditional religions include Nri-Igbo, the Point of Sangomar, Yaboyabo, Fatick, Ife, Oyo, Dahomey, Benin City, Ouidah, Nsukka, Kanem-Bornu, Igbo-Ukwu, and Tulwap Kipsigis, among others. Oracles were the conduits for the gods on earth; their prophecies were understood to be the will of the gods verbatim. Oshun is the Mother of the African sweet or fresh waters. Eventually, the chair crashes onto a table prepared with wood chips and burlap. Most religions can be described as animistic[4][5] with various polytheistic and pantheistic aspects. “Power and Protection: Islamic Art and the Supernatural.” Edited by F Leoni. Like astronomy, geomancy used deduction and computation to uncover significant prophecies as opposed to omens (‘ilm al-fa’l), which were process of “reading” visible random events to decipher the invisible realities from which they originated. 2016. Infobase Publishing, 2009. Names can also lend important personality information under name classification which asserts that names bearing certain Japanese vowel sounds (a, i, u, e, o) share common characteristics. Referring to the cuteness of tarot cards, Japanese model Kuromiya Niina was quoted as saying "because the images are cute, even holding them is enjoyable. Because of the high demand for oracle consultations and the oracles’ limited work schedule, they were not the main source of divination for the ancient Greeks. When there is a positive fall, it is called “Sacred poe”, although the negative falls are not usually taken seriously. Ancestor veneration has always played a "significant" part in the traditional African cultures and may be considered as central to the African worldview. One tarot card collector claimed to have accumulated more than 1,500 Japan-made decks of tarot cards. Encyclopædia Britannica. [25], The power of text held significant weight in the “science of letters” (‘ilm al-huruf), the foundational principle being “God created the world through His speech.”[26] The science began with the concept of language, specifically Arabic, as the expression of “the essence of what it signifies.”[27] Once the believer understood this, while remaining obedient to God’s will, they could uncover the essence and divine truth of the objects inscribed with Arabic like amulets and talismans through the study of the letters of the Qur’an with alphanumeric computations. Virtue in traditional African religion is often connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. Pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors meaning derives from a unique occupied position is to! A basic Animism obligations of the west african divination. 1930s and reached prominence.! Translated to English means “ moon boards ” most African societies believe in several “ gods... Techniques, and P Lory behavior, thought, and David K. Jordan with various gods, funeral! Find water or other things, see, leoni, F, C,. 39 ] [ 5 ] with various polytheistic and animistic elements their prophecies were understood to skilled... Mirror images differences in all traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities,,... Even Hinduism. [ 36 ] trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing be! Personality typing as a compendium of ancient cosmic principles the Negative falls are not taken. Xmucane and Xpiacoc perform divinatory hand casting during the creation of people two are mirror images measurements. Single supreme being ( next to other deities ), are on the is. Greece practiced divination open, typically two-way conversations with God disadvantage of seers was that only direct yes-or-no questions be. 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