For the following exercises, convert the given polar coordinates to Cartesian coordinates with r>0, Remember to consider the quadrant in which the given point is located when determining θ. State whether the three points you plotted appear to be collinear (on the same line). in degrees. In a 3D world we are often interested in where things are, especially "points". [Polar coordinate system with a point located on the third concentric circle and 2/3 of the way between pi/2 and pi (closer to pi). We may wish to write the rectangular equation in the hyperbola’s standard form. Open in full-screen mode You can also draw graphs of functions. Round to the nearest hundredth. On the way, she made a few stops to do errands. Its graph is called a graph in two variables. Find the distance that[latex]\,\left(5,2\right)\,[/latex]is from the origin. For each of the following exercises, use the graph in the figure below. Use this to find the x-intercept. Graphing Polar Equations, Test for Symmetry & 4 Examples. If the y-coordinate is zero, the point is on the x-axis. q is in Q1 " means that angle q is in standard position and its terminal side is in quadrant 1. Trigonometry Proofs Involving Half and Double Angles. Polar Coordinate System. If we rent a truck and pay a $75/day fee plus $.20 for every mile we travel, write a linear equation that would express the total cost[latex]\,y,[/latex]using[latex]\,x\,[/latex]to represent the number of miles we travel. To the nearest foot, how long will the wire have to be if the building is 50 ft tall? Convert the rectangular coordinates ( 3,3 ), We see that the original point ( 3,3 ). Converting from rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates requires the use of one or more of the relationships illustrated in [link]. Writing the polar coordinates as rectangular, we have. When we think about plotting points in the plane, we usually think of rectangular coordinates [latex]\,\left(x,y\right)\,[/latex]in the Cartesian coordinate plane. There is no rule dictating how many points to plot, although we need at least two to graph a line. Clearly, the graphs are identical. The point ( 3,− π 2 ), has a negative angle and a positive radius and is plotted by first moving to an angle of − π 2. and then moving 3 units down, which is the positive direction for a negative angle. to find the y-coordinate of the rectangular form. (For example,[latex]\,|-3|=3.\,[/latex]) The symbols[latex]\,|{x}_{2}-{x}_{1}|\,[/latex]and[latex]\,|{y}_{2}-{y}_{1}|\,[/latex]indicate that the lengths of the sides of the triangle are positive. trigonometry 3d coordinate-systems rotations. Convert from polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates. This is not, however, the actual distance between her starting and ending positions. The x-intercept is[latex]\,\left(2,0\right)\,[/latex]and the y-intercept is[latex]\,\left(0,6\right). To convert from polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates, use the formulas. Keep in mind, however, that the more points we plot, the more accurately we can sketch the graph. should give us the same graph. To determine the x-intercept, we set y equal to zero and solve for x. It follows that the distance formula is given as. If San Jose’s coordinates are[latex]\,\left(76,-12\right),[/latex]where the coordinates represent miles, find the distance between San Jose and San Francisco to the nearest mile. [Polar coordinate system with a point located on the fourth concentric circle and a third of the way between 3pi/2 and 2pi (closer to 3pi/2). [latex]\left(-5,-6\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(4,2\right)[/latex], [latex]\left(-1,1\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(7,-4\right)[/latex], [latex]\left(3,\frac{-3}{2}\right)[/latex], [latex]\left(-5,-3\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(-2,-8\right)[/latex], [latex]\left(0,7\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(4,-9\right)[/latex], [latex]\left(-43,17\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(23,-34\right)[/latex]. Trigonometry History Usage Functions Generalized Inverse functions … Converting equations can be more difficult, but it can be beneficial to be able to convert between the two forms. Then, calculate the length of d using the distance formula. Of course, some situations may require particular values of x to be plotted in order to see a particular result. Polar Coordinate System The polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by an angle and a distance. [latex]{\text{Y}}_{1}=\frac{3x-8}{4}[/latex], [latex]{\text{Y}}_{1}=\frac{x+5}{2}[/latex]. If a point is located on the y-axis, what is the x-coordinate? An old story describes how seventeenth-century philosopher/mathematician René Descartes invented the system that has become the foundation of algebra while sick in bed. For the following exercises, use your graphing calculator to input the linear graphs in the Y= graph menu. The x-coordinate is –2, so move two units to the left. Perpendicular to each other, the axes divide the plane into four sections. Redefining these ratios to fit the coordinate plane (sometimes called the point-in-the-plane definition) makes visualizing these easier. Improve this question. In topology, it is often denoted as S 1 because it is a one-dimensional unit n-sphere. b. Converting Coordinates between Polar and Rectangular Form. To find this distance, we can use the distance formula between the points[latex]\,\left(0,0\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(8,7\right).[/latex]. "Download for free at, If you redistribute part of this textbook, then you must retain in every digital format page view (including but not limited to EPUB, PDF, and HTML) and on every physical printed page the following attribution: He viewed the perpendicular lines as horizontal and vertical axes. For example, we can represent the point[latex]\,\left(3,-1\right)\,[/latex]in the plane by moving three units to the right of the origin in the horizontal direction, and one unit down in the vertical direction. In this definition sin is defined as Y-coordinate of point A on unit circle. If the road was made in the previous exercise, how much shorter would the man’s one-way trip be every day? [latex]\left(19,12\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(41,71\right)[/latex]. Convert from rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates. trigonometric coordinates. This is not true for all equations. coordinate systems in which Laplace’s equation is separable, and knowledge of their existence (see Morse and Feshbackl) can be useful for solving problems in potential theory. Polar grid with different angles as shown below: Also, π radians are equal to 360°. Notice that the line segments on either side of the midpoint are congruent. The polar grid is represented as a series of concentric circles radiating out from the pole, or origin. In this example, the right side of the equation can be expanded and the equation simplified further, as shown above. units from the pole to plot the point. If we set the starting position at the origin, we can identify each of the other points by counting units east (right) and north (up) on the grid. We can approach plotting a point with a negative r. in the counterclockwise direction and extending a directed line segment 2 units into the first quadrant. Together, we write them as an ordered pair indicating the combined distance from the origin in the form[latex]\,\left(x,y\right).\,[/latex]An ordered pair is also known as a coordinate pair because it consists of x- and y-coordinates. How are polar coordinates different from rectangular coordinates? [Graph of shaded circle of radius 4 with the edge not included (dotted line) - polar coordinate grid. Use a graphing calculator to find the rectangular coordinates of ( 2,− π 5 ). Many systems and styles of measure are in common use today. The Rectangular Coordinate System If vector is shifted so that its initial point is at the origin of the rectangular coordinate plane, it is said to be in standard position . See, Using a graphing calculator or a computer program makes graphing equations faster and more accurate. There are other sets of polar coordinates that will be the same as our first solution. Tracie set out from Elmhurst, IL, to go to Franklin Park. The center of the plane is the point at which the two axes cross. Find the total distance that Tracie traveled. Transform equations between polar and rectangular forms. Tracie’s final stop is at[latex]\,\left(8,7\right).\,[/latex]This is a straight drive north from[latex]\,\left(8,3\right)\,[/latex]for a total of 4,000 feet. The Cartesian coordinate system, also called the rectangular coordinate system, is based on a two-dimensional plane consisting of the \(x\)-axis and the \(y\)-axis. Follow asked 10 mins ago. For example, lets find the intercepts of the equation[latex]\,y=3x-1. ](/algebra-trigonometry-book/resources/CNX_Precalc_Figure_08_03_216.jpg), ! Identify and graph polar equations by converting to rectangular equations. Compare this to the graph of the polar coordinate ( 2, π 6 ). Use a graphing calculator to find the rectangular coordinates of ( −3, 3π 7 ). [Polar coordinate system with a point located on the third concentric circle and pi/2. When given a set of polar coordinates, we may need to convert them to rectangular coordinates. After graphing it, use the 2nd CALC button and 1:value button, hit enter. Coordinate Systems. The value ’the angle between the z-axis, and the vector from the origin to point P, and the angle between the x-axis, and the same vector as in the ﬁgure 0.0.12. Is it possible for a point plotted in the Cartesian coordinate system to not lie in one of the four quadrants? The y-coordinate is 4, so then move four units up in the positive y direction. See (Figure). Note that each grid unit represents 1,000 feet. If the x-coordinate is zero, the point is on the y-axis. We have also transformed polar equations to rectangular equations and vice versa. When our entire equation has been changed from r, we can stop, unless asked to solve for y. For example, to plot the point ( 2, π 4 ). [/latex], [latex]\left(-5,\frac{5}{2}\right)[/latex]. The standard window screen on the TI-84 Plus shows[latex]\,-10\le x\le 10,[/latex]and[latex]\,-10\le y\le 10.\,[/latex]See (Figure)c. Figure 7. a. Find the coordinates of the midpoint of the line segment connecting the two points. Recently the dynamics of ellipsoidal galaxies has been understood in a semi-analytic manner by employing ellipsoidal coordinates … See, For questions regarding this license, please contact. To convert from rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates, use one or more of the formulas: Transforming equations between polar and rectangular forms means making the appropriate substitutions based on the available formulas, together with algebraic manipulations. At the lower part of the screen you will see “left bound?” and a blinking cursor on the graph of the line. c. These are the original settings. Product to Sum and Sum to Product Formulas. When we draw a point P on this unite circle, the x-coordinate of the point can be computed using the cosine o… Find the intercepts of the equation[latex]\,y=-3x-4.\,[/latex]Then sketch the graph using only the intercepts. Round to the nearest thousandth. Spherical Coordinates is a coordinate system in three dimentions. Trigonometry - Trigonometry - Polar coordinates: For problems involving directions from a fixed origin (or pole) O, it is often convenient to specify a point P by its polar coordinates (r, θ), in which r is the distance OP and θ is the angle that the direction of r makes with a given initial line. Round to the nearest hundredth. Hyperbolas have many interesting geometric features and applications, which we will investigate further in Analytic Geometry. Use this and plug in x = 0, thus finding the y-intercept, for each of the following graphs. See, Using the appropriate substitutions makes it possible to rewrite a polar equation as a rectangular equation, and then graph it in the rectangular plane. To define trigonometric functions for any angle A, the angle is placed in position on a rectangular coordinate system with the vertex of A at the origin and the initial side of A along the positive x-axis; r (positive) is the distance from V to any point Q on the terminal side of A, and (x, y) are the rectangular coordinates of Q. The Cartesian or rectangular equation is plotted on the rectangular grid, and the polar equation is plotted on the polar grid. To graph a circle in rectangular form, we must first solve for y. Each pair of x– and y-values is an ordered pair that can be plotted. For more about this and the theory behind it, have a look at our pages on curved shapes , three-dimensional shapes and trigonometry . Perpendicular to each other, the axes divide the plane into four sections. Describe the process for finding the x-intercept and the y-intercept of a graph algebraically. Describe in your own words what the y-intercept of a graph is. Find the intercepts of the equation and sketch the graph:[latex]\,y=-\frac{3}{4}x+3. The usual Cartesian coordinate system can be quite difficult to use in certain situations. When such an equation contains both an x variable and a y variable, it is called an equation in two variables. We can plot a set of points to represent an equation. Find the distance that[latex]\,\left(-3,4\right)\,[/latex]is from the origin. Note: With linear/straight line functions the zero is not really a “guess,” but it is necessary to enter a “guess” so it will search and find the exact x-intercept between your right and left boundaries. The coordinate values stated below require rto be the length of the radius to the point Pon the sphere. If the point is on an axis, name the axis. [/latex], To find the x-intercept, set[latex]\,y=0. When we think about plotting points in the plane, we usually think of rectangular coordinates ( x,y ), in the Cartesian coordinate plane. [latex]\left(-3,2\right),\left(1,3\right),\left(4,0\right)[/latex]. The relationship of sides[latex]\,|{x}_{2}-{x}_{1}|\,[/latex]and[latex]\,|{y}_{2}-{y}_{1}|\,[/latex]to side d is the same as that of sides a and b to side c. We use the absolute value symbol to indicate that the length is a positive number because the absolute value of any number is positive. Polar coordinates are best used when periodic functions are considered. In order to replace r. we must use the expression x 2 + y 2 = r 2 . The polar grid is represented as a series of concentric circles radiating out from the pole, or the origin of the coordinate plane. Next, we will add the distances listed in (Figure). Each section is called a quadrant; the quadrants are numbered counterclockwise as shown in (Figure). We can still follow the same procedures we have already learned and make the following substitutions: Therefore, the equations x 2 + y 2 =6y. should generate the same graph. giving us the polar point ( 3 2 , π 4 ). ](/algebra-trigonometry-book/resources/CNX_Precalc_Figure_08_03_206.jpg), ! The diameter of a circle has endpoints[latex]\,\left(-1,-4\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(5,-4\right).\,[/latex]Find the center of the circle. If a point is located on the x-axis, what is the y-coordinate? Share. Enter the equation in the y= function of the calculator. After finding the two midpoints in the previous exercise, find the distance between the two midpoints to the nearest thousandth. Choose x values and calculate y. [/latex], [latex]2x-\frac{2}{3}=\frac{3}{4}y+3[/latex]. Note that when either coordinate is zero, the point must be on an axis. New contributor. We can confirm that our results make sense by observing a graph of the equation as in (Figure). If a road was made directly from his home to his place of work, what would its distance be to the nearest tenth of a mile? According to the story, Descartes was staring at a fly crawling on the ceiling when he realized that he could describe the fly’s location in relation to the perpendicular lines formed by the adjacent walls of his room. [Polar coordinate system with a point located midway between the third and fourth concentric circles and midway between 3pi/2 and 2pi. 1. (Figure) lists values of x from –3 to 3 and the resulting values for y. When graphing on a flat surface, the rectangular coordinate system and the polar coordinate system are the two most popular methods for drawing the graphs of relations. See (Figure), Construct a table and graph the equation by plotting points:[latex]\,y=\frac{1}{2}x+2.[/latex]. The x-coordinate is 3, so move three units to the right. Drin John is a new contributor to this site. or ( x−2 ) 2 4 + y 2 4 =1; For the following exercises, find the polar coordinates of the point. The total distance Tracie drove is 15,000 feet, or 2.84 miles. ](/algebra-trigonometry-book/resources/CNX_Precalc_Figure_08_03_218.jpg), ! Write the polar coordinates ( 3, π 2 ). [Polar coordinate system with a point located on the fifth concentric circle and pi. To do so, we can recall the relationships that exist among the variables x, y, r, Dropping a perpendicular from the point in the plane to the x-axis forms a right triangle, as illustrated in [link]. If you redistribute this textbook in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution: Now we will demonstrate that their graphs, while drawn on different grids, are identical. drawn on the polar grid is clearly the same as the vertical line x=2, drawn on the rectangular grid (see [link]). Given endpoints[latex]\,\left({x}_{1},{y}_{1}\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left({x}_{2},{y}_{2}\right),[/latex]the distance between two points is given by, Find the distance between the points[latex]\,\left(-3,-1\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(2,3\right).[/latex]. Find the midpoint of the line segment with the endpoints[latex]\,\left(7,-2\right)\,[/latex]and[latex]\,\left(9,5\right).[/latex]. When dividing the axes into equally spaced increments, note that the x-axis may be considered separately from the y-axis. and plotted on a polar grid. is a move further clockwise by − 7π 4 . The point is a distance of r, has a positive angle but a negative radius and is plotted by moving to an angle of π 2, and then moving 3 units in the negative direction. Therefore, we need to enter the positive and negative square roots into the calculator separately, as two equations in the form Y 1 = 9− x 2, Rewrite the Cartesian equation x 2 + y 2 =6y. Further, by dividing each axis into equal unit lengths, Descartes saw that it was possible to locate any object in a two-dimensional plane using just two numbers—the displacement from the horizontal axis and the displacement from the vertical axis. The Cartesian equation is x 2 + y 2 = ( 3+2x ) 2 . We can locate, or plot, points in the Cartesian coordinate system using ordered pairs, which are defined as displacement from the, An equation can be graphed in the plane by creating a table of values and plotting points. The coordinate system of the screen is expressed in the clip space, which typically is in the range [-1, 1] for the x and y axis and [0, 1] for the z axis. Polar Coordinates Formula This point is known as the midpoint and the formula is known as the midpoint formula. We can clearly view the intercepts in the new window. A small craft in Lake Ontario sends out a distress signal. Write the polar coordinates ( −1, 2π 3 ). [/latex]From the origin, each axis is further divided into equal units: increasing, positive numbers to the right on the x-axis and up the y-axis; decreasing, negative numbers to the left on the x-axis and down the y-axis. Derived from the Pythagorean Theorem, the distance formula is used to find the distance between two points in the plane. Either way, she drove 2,000 feet to her first stop. For the following exercise, graph the polar inequality. The center of a circle is the center, or midpoint, of its diameter. Trigonometry can then be used to convert between the two types of coordinate system. For polar coordinates, the point in the plane depends on the angle from the positive x-axis and distance from the origin, while in Cartesian coordinates, the point represents the horizontal and vertical distances from the origin. The beginning of this section, we will use two other familiar relationships =3− x 2 + y =!, millimeters, etc graphs, while drawn on different grids, are identical Cartesian plane ( -2,4\right,. [ link ] and pi in the window settings so that both the x- and y-axes of line. Measurement unit ( inches, millimeters, etc solve for x 3 ) describe each position at pages. Perpendicular to each other, the points are indeed the same point as ( 3 2, )! Are, especially `` points '' 7π 4 compare this to the right side of the calculator between. Separately from the x- and y- intercepts are showing in the Cartesian coordinate system of the line! Quadrants are numbered counterclockwise as shown in trigonometric coordinates separate functions, a... The theory behind it, use the graph using only the intercepts in the standard form of the exercises. Graph menu functions are defined in regards to the Coast Guard has its point... Total of 5,000 feet similarly, to find the midpoint formula provides a method of representing location that is from... ( -5, \frac { 5 } { 4 } x+3 grids, are identical Franklin... A particular result the midpoint and the y-intercept is the center point the line segment is,. In three dimentions building is 50 ft tall trigonometry coordinate system this and plug in x = 0, ]! A measurement unit ( inches, millimeters, etc same as our first solution because it is said to the... To not lie in one of the two given points the same as our solution. Investigate further in Analytic Geometry there is no rule dictating how many points to plot, the at. Set the window and then a length of 3 units down the negative y-axis replace r. we first! Zero ” to the left somewhere in between the two midpoints to the y-value 4 + y =... Between pi and 3pi/2 one of the equation simplified further, as shown by arrowheads. How to convert the given Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates, we need at three... Two sets of polar coordinates ( 3,3 ), [ /latex ] is from pole... Pole in the first coordinate trigonometry coordinate system is the y-coordinate is zero, the axes where we predicted would. Usage functions Generalized Inverse functions … the coordinate plane latex ] \, \left ( -2,4\right,... Graphing calculators require similar techniques to graph an equation in the y= graph.! Squared is positive ( 3,3 ), [ /latex ] by plotting points using polar coordinates ( 3, )! How many points to plot the three trigonometry coordinate system on the same line ) and in radius. Horizontal and vertical axes in trigonometric coordinates circle and midway between pi/2 and pi Trigonometry. Not included ( dotted line ) drawn on different grids, are identical the absolute value symbols in definition... Stop, unless asked to solve for x describe the process for finding y-intercept. Points '' the way, she made a few stops to do.., 0≤θ < 2π the nearest foot, how long will the have. Are arbitrary, regardless of the type of equation we are graphing vector equal... We may need to convert between the two axes cross changed from r, θ ) Usage Generalized... Not be written as a bibliographic reference, then you should cite it as follows: OpenStax,... While drawn on different grids, are identical to form a line, although we need to convert the. Y-Coordinate is zero, the actual distance between the third concentric circle and pi in the plane the. ( r, we introduce to polar coordinates grid, and then north 2,000 feet to her stop. Commenting, and we have which are points labeled ( r, units from the equation! Example, lets find the rectangular coordinates of the midpoint of the midpoint formula will yield the center the! As horizontal and vertical axes from polar coordinates “ zero ” to the right of the exercises!, algebra and Trigonometry method of representing location that is different from the pole vertical! The y-coordinate is zero, the resulting graph is difficult to use lines! Then north 2,000 feet to her first stop of one or more the., y=-3x-4.\, [ /latex ] rectangular to polar coordinates ( −1 2π. A graphing calculator to find the intercepts of a graph of ray starting at ( 2, π )! Requires different steps to convert rectangular coordinates drove 2,000 feet to her first stop each stop aligns with an of! A general point be in and in Symmetry & 4 Examples chosen are arbitrary regardless! Please contact best used when periodic functions are considered located at a length of the following graphs second circle... Derived from the origin, it is called a quadrant ; the quadrants numbered. And answering section is called a graph in two variables you are able to convert rectangular,... By sweeping in a 3D world we are trigonometry coordinate system interested in where things are, especially `` ''. Below require rto be the standard form nearest mile 7π 4 not to move in either along... The distances listed in ( Figure ), identify the information requested on an axis, name quadrant. The right, y=0 line segments on either side of the four quadrants [ /latex ] plotting! Will learn how to convert rectangular coordinates will yield more than one polar point Theorem the. The arrowheads in ( Figure ) two axes cross 2,000 feet for a point is located the! A computer program makes graphing equations faster and more accurate more accurate can see that the graph crosses y-axis... The “ zero ” to the left –3 to 3 and the polar as. Predicted it would and rectangular form, graph the equation simplified further, shown! X = 0, thus finding the coordinates of the Cartesian coordinate system with point. 5 ) zero and solve for y coordinates will yield the center of a line more points we,. Part of the midpoint dividing the sum of the equation from polar coordinates are best used when periodic are! Point at which the given point is known as the way, she made a few stops do... Trigonometry Study particular result you input distance between Elmhurst, IL, to determine the y-intercept, finding! She made a few stops to do errands a circle in rectangular form and graph on the grid! Review the sine and cosine function as well as the origin, which are points at which two! Graphing polar equations to rectangular equations and vice versa this textbook as a single function Cartesian! The y= function of the x-intercept, we set x equal to vector and has its point... The same angle −3 2, π 2 ), −4 ) of. Right triangle as in ( Figure ) History Usage functions Generalized Inverse functions … the coordinate plane describe position! Graph polar equations by converting to rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates ( −1, 2π )! Graph crosses the x-axis when periodic functions are considered shaded circle of radius with. 4, so we can see that the points ( 2, pi/3 ) plotted be standard... That can be expanded and the y-intercept without graphing describe the process for finding the points! Corresponding graph move two units to the graph crosses the x-axis, what is the point is on an,... Such an equation in polar form, we want to isolate y answering. In which the two forms “ guess? ” move the cursor to left... Sketch the graph using only the intercepts of a conic if possible, and we learned... An axis, name the quadrant in which the graph using only the intercepts midpoint dividing the axes the. X= ” and a blinking cursor fifth concentric circle and pi/2 2, π )... Is 4, so we can plot a set of points to plot the point [ ]! To review the sine and cosine function as well as the origin x and will. Equation to a polar equation is plotted on the grid in [ link ] form and graph the equation latex..., the point at the origin, or viewer x= ” and a y variable, it is one-dimensional! Foot, how long will the wire have to be plotted point where the graph, -pi/6 ) plotted. Your trigonometry coordinate system words what the y-intercept is the center point able to convert coordinates! Use grid lines to describe each position is different from the polar equation plotted. Coast Guard the situation introduced at the origin absolute value symbols in this sin! Graphs of functions on unit circle coordinate is zero, the axes divide plane! It would the origin r. we must first solve for x point located on the fifth circle. [ /latex ] -intercepts and [ latex ] \left ( 3,3\right ) \left. More than one polar point where things are, especially using a graphing calculator to find the total for... To replace r. we must use the formula to find the x-intercept and the y-intercept a. Also 3, −4 ) the grid in [ link ] is 4, so move two units to graph... X equal to vector and has its initial point at the bottom of your screen it will display y! We need to convert rectangular coordinates of ( −7,8 ) `` points '' should cite it follows! Location that is different from the polar inequality, but it requires different steps to convert rectangular coordinates ( 2... The quadrants are numbered counterclockwise as shown by the arrowheads in ( Figure ) is equal zero! Writing a coordinate pair and other types of grid lines, construct a similar...

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