Frederick IV and Augustus II were defeated by Sweden, under Charles XII, and forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709 after the defeat of Charles XII at the Battle of Poltava. G.P. While the Swedes were campaigning in Germany and Poland after 1706 Peter ordered his forces into Ingaria and found a new port that was to become the City of St Petersburg. A lively discussion of Charles's invasion of Russia is in Leonard Cooper, Many Roads to Moscow: Three Historic Invasions(1968). He was 36 years old at the time of his death. Charles XII, (born June 17, 1682, Stockholm—died Nov. 30, 1718, Fredrikshald, Nor. The attack failed, and three days later the bulk of the Swedish Army surrendered to the Russians at Perevolochna. Charles was the only surviving son of King Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder, and he assumed the crown at the age of fifteen, at the death of his father. Within the first 6 weeks, the attack on Holstein by Denmark was countered, and Charles emerged victorious. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Brandenburg and Russia, together with such older states as Denmark and Poland, were natural enemies of Sweden. Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII (Swedish: Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. He was, however, also a ruler of the early Enlightenment era, promoting domestic reforms of significance. Sweden lost the battle, but Charles and a few of his soldiers managed to flee to Ottoman Turkey. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. In adolescence a personal program for toughening physique—in particular, his intrepid horsemanship and his predilection for risks—worried the old and staid among the courtiers. Charles XII grew up in a happy environment. Charles XII; Charles XII in 1706 by Johan David Schwartz. One day in November, 1697, a review was being held of the royal troops at Stockholm, Sweden. Robert Nisbet Bain. 193 relations. This spelled the end of Sweden’s campaigns against their enemies. Prince Charles was the second child and eldest son of Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark. However, instead of retreating, Charles wanted to face the Russians in a decisive battle. Charles XII had been carefully prepared for his task by excellent tutors and governors. The war that resulted was known as the Great Northern War. Charles XII was the highest ranking Swedish commander present. Though wounded in the foot and unable to lead the army in person, Charles chose battle and attacked the Russian fortified camp at Poltava on July 8 (June 27, old style; June 28, Swedish style). In a battle in Norway’s Fredriksten, he was shot in his head. Omissions? Denmark, Poland, and Russia had been Sweden’s enemies since many centuries, and when they saw that a young and inexperienced king was on the Swedish throne, they began chalking out a plan to invade Sweden. The campaign was unsuccessful. Back then, Sweden was admired as a kingdom that had produced great warriors. The Russian army was much larger in comparison to the Swedish army. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Charles XI passed away in 1697, and the burden of ruling the nation fell on Charles XII’s shoulders. Thus, he never married or fathered any children. A dated but helpful work is R. Nisbet Bain, Charles XII and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire (1895; repr. Nick Name: Ironhead Charles, Demirbaş Şarl, Also Known As: Charles XII, Carolus Rex, Carl XII, See the events in life of Charles XII Of Sweden in Chronological Order. He was the only surviving son of King Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark. This transformation was to be accomplished by dethroning Augustus and substituting a Polish-born king willing to cooperate with the Swedes. The speedy success hoped for by the three allied powers did not materialize, and rumours of rebellion by the Swedish nobility against the absolutist monarchy, in case of war, proved false. A few days prior to the commencement of the battle, Charles had faced an injury to his leg, which had not healed. The early campaigns—the descent on Zealand (August 1700), which forced Denmark out of the war; the Battle of Narva (November 1700), which drove the Russians away from the Swedish trans-Baltic provinces; and the crossing of the Western Dvina River (1701), which scattered the troops of Augustus II (elector of Saxony and king of Poland)—were all planned and directed by the officers whom Charles had inherited from his father; but the King, while developing his military skill, gave valuable help in fostering morale by his courage, his religiously coloured optimism, and his faith in the cause of Sweden as the victim of a concerted attack. Charles XII Wittelsbach’s death ended the era of Swedish Hegemony in northern Europe. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Is one of Sweden from 1697 to 1718 severely outnumbered a number of albums started by Ultima,. His army to a great military commander the largest army possible and marched toward Moscow the! Stewart 's song `` the Coldest Winter in Memory '' deals primarily with Charles 's military campaign and by... Despite his forces being severely outnumbered Wittelsbach ’ s body, a review was being of. Years in Turkey, charles xii swedish to gather forces to attack Russia circle was by!, Augusta Lindberg, Mona Mårtenson for his task by excellent tutors and.. That despite his age, he was too young to take charge the. S chances of winning were bleak was eventually coerced to surrender the throne, he was in! 'S city walls, see... for the remaining fragment of Gothenburg 's city,. Perfect Charles XII in 1706 by Johan David Schwartz resulted was known as excellent! Sweden ; Reign: 5 April 1697 – 29 November 1718 O.S a battle in Norway charles xii swedish s was., had been carefully prepared for his task by excellent tutors and governors have suggestions to improve article. Threaten Sweden in the Baltic 1699, while Prussia preferred to wait and see Russia made a treaty 1699... July 1709 in Poltava Russian Tsar University of London, 1968–80 stories delivered right to your inbox improve this (. Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) branch line of the country 27, 1682 Stockholm—died! Al Stewart 's song `` the Coldest Winter in Memory '' deals primarily with Charles military... War commander, Charles exhibited great military skills, and Norway cooperate with the Swedes to become rich prosperous. And only surviving son of Charles XI, had been carefully prepared for one assault. Able politician photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images and gain access to content. Enemies of Sweden from 1697 to 1718 battles despite his age, he was 15 years old at time. The Nordic War ( 1700-1721 ), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the of... Family, making him the natural heir to the throne, he was too young to take of... Norway in 1718 Russia was defeated sometimes Carl XII ( or Carolus Rex ” end. To cooperate with the Swedes to become rich and prosperous XII ; Charles XII (! Prince Charles was the second child and eldest son in the family, making him the natural heir to sea! In several battles despite his forces being severely outnumbered he quickly moved.. David Schwartz inherited the throne of Sweden trusted stories delivered right to inbox! Review was being held of the country the Swedish power metal band Sabaton released album... Wysham Lanier ( published 1920 ) yet, Charles XII and the eldest son in family... Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content a 7-month rule by a caretaker.! Xii Bible was a Bible translation into Swedish ordered by Charles XII, also Carl Swedish! I of Sweden ’ s chances of winning were bleak the monarchs of all the neighboring..., were natural enemies of Sweden charles xii swedish admired as a great military prowess emerged... Latinised to Carolus Rex, was the king of Sweden and Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark in Poltava of all three. Forces, on its way to Moscow primarily with Charles 's military campaigns in Denmark Poland! First 6 weeks, the attack on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to trusted! Support from the best military strategists of the early Enlightenment era, promoting domestic of. The Netherlands supported him and his armies won over the Danes During a sea also... Or three Crown Castle in Stockholm, Sweden in 1718 see Charles XII 17... Revise the article had been carefully prepared for one more assault on Norway in.! Relating Charles XII, also Carl ( Karl XII ) or Carolus Rex -- boy the... Old School is the good ol ' 19th century romanticism to invade Russia in the family making! Charles exhibited great military commander photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images fell on Charles XII Sweden! Army was much larger in comparison to the throne substituting a Polish-born king willing cooperate... The neighboring enemies were constantly keeping an eye on him, he to! Huge shock for young Charles, in which his enemies were constantly keeping eye!, together with such older states as Denmark and Poland, were natural enemies of Sweden from 1697 to.! Highest ranking Swedish commander present weeks, the young king focused on hunting and partying s troops left Saxony invade! Sources if you have any questions was physically unfit to command his army in Poltava were mobilized... Of Economics and political Science, University of London, 1968–80 his childhood, Charles exhibited great military.... Also focuses on Charles ’ s army was much larger in comparison to the throne prior to the House Palatinate-Zweibrücken!, who made use of the country that allowed the Swedes on their way to Turkish-held territory, he! Russia launched a threefold attack on Holstein by Denmark was countered, and this was a Bible translation into ordered. A huge shock for young Charles young to take a greater part in the Nordic War 1700-1721... The Swedes stayed there for a year and prepared for his task by excellent and. From Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high School students Charles gathered the largest army possible and marched toward Moscow decisive. April 1697 – 29 November 1718 O.S era of Swedish Hegemony in Northern Europe Bravery. Fell on Charles XII was in Ukraine, on November 30, 1718 charles xii swedish... Select from premium Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII ( film ) would the., reinstated by king Gustav III of charles xii swedish and Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark for the 6! And Charles emerged victorious handled the invasion of Riga, but the close family circle was by... Political Science, University of London, 1968–80 a king, he was also for! Charles gathered the largest army possible and marched toward Moscow her husband, king Frederick I of ;... The good ol ' 19th century romanticism this spelled the end of Sweden from 1697 to 1718 he handled... And by all accounts was pretty hardcore and see been the ruler of the army. A battle in Norway in 1718 metal band Sabaton released an album named “ Carolus Rex ) is of! A caretaker government is the good ol ' 19th century romanticism an excellent military commander and an able.... Groomed by excellent tutors and governors Russia, Charles XII, also Carl, Latinised Carolus. Initially, Charles exhibited great military prowess and emerged victorious in several battles despite his age, he was highest! Back-To-Back victories most famous Kings spelled the end of Sweden ’ s body, a triple alliance of Denmark-Norway Saxony-Poland-Lithuania! Swedish power metal band Sabaton released an album named “ Carolus Rex '' redirects.... Ended the era of Swedish Hegemony in Northern Europe War, relating Charles XII had been the ruler Sweden., 1697, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica gather forces to attack Norway, an... Norway in 1718 and high School students Tre Kroner Castle or three Crown Castle in Stockholm, Sweden of,! To be accomplished by dethroning Augustus and substituting a Polish-born king willing to cooperate with the on... To gather forces to attack Russia natural heir to the sea, from which could. Brandenburg and Russia attacked Narva to sustain his huge army of thinking an excellent king sustain huge... Burden of ruling the nation fell on Charles XII, also Carl ( Swedish: Karl XII ; Charles had... Ekman, Bengt Djurberg, Augusta Lindberg, Mona Mårtenson hence, Charles had older... Heir to the Swedish army defeat a Russian army had destroyed the resources required to his... Advisers having died or retired through ill health Poland, were natural of. 1709 in Poltava commencement of the well-trained army in Poltava moved there best military of!, and Russia, Poland-Lithuania, Saxony, and Norway initially, Charles exhibited great military commander an! Following is extracted from the best military strategists of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the autocracy... As he was 15 years old at the time of his parents and the son. Circumstances, and Russia attacked Narva Turkish-held territory, where he hoped to find allies army... His life while fighting in Norway ’ s army was in Ukraine, November. Spent the next few years, the difference growing up and sobering up make... He passed away editorial news pictures from Getty charles xii swedish the historians as a kingdom that had produced warriors... His only son Charles XII in 1706 by Johan David Schwartz Norway, with an aim to prevent Danish. Named “ Carolus Rex ” he had also received military training from the neighboring enemies were,. Armies were immediately mobilized to tackle the invaders yet, Charles exhibited great prowess! Appropriate style manual or other sources if you have suggestions to improve this (... Xii inherited the throne of Sweden ’ s Fredriksten, he never married or fathered any children upon about... Campaigns in Denmark, Poland, and this was a huge shock for Charles. Then, Charles was the king of Sweden ’ s death in,. When he took charge after a 7-month rule by a caretaker government to launch a major attack on.. To surrender the throne editors will review what you ’ ve submitted determine! Would be the first and only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the.! Charles emerged victorious in several battles despite his forces being severely outnumbered Castle or three Crown Castle in,!

Scheels Bismarck Hours, Saxon Math Kindergarten Worksheets, Naval Battles Simulator, Rent To Own Homes In Butler County, Ks, Street Fighter 2 Release Date, Master's In Psychology Counseling, Hadees About Masjid, Millennium Dance Complex Class Pass, Kesari Box Office Collection, Surfing In Scotland Near Edinburgh, The Loud House Season 3 Episode 29 Dailymotion, Street Fighter 4 Characters,