Classroom Resources

Algebra tiles are a powerful manipulatives to understand algebraic expressions in single variable up to degree 2. They prevent some misconceptions and can be used all the way till middle-term factorization. They can be easily made from cardboard boxes.

Exponentiation with natural number bases can be model as branching of trees. These branching modules can be easily made by straws by cutting and stapling them. They provide an experiential understanding of exponential growth! They can be used to understand various rules of exponents.

Fractions can be modeled in various ways. The model with the square as the whole turned out to be the most useful. It can be used for everything except reducing a fraction to its lowest form.

Process with diagrams and suggested activities are included.


Ten-frames are relatively new to India. They are very useful at the beginning for learning the single-digit numbers. They also facilitate automatization of addition facts with single digit numbers. In addition, they can provide a lot of conceptual clarity wrt odd-even.

Three versions are included:

Ganitmala is a manipulative version of number line. It is a proportional material that has properties of both groupable and pre-grouped models. Jodo Gyan ( introduced them in India.

It can be used for introducing whole numbers and all four operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It can also be used for the division algorithm to find the HCF!

2D base 10 blocks, popularly known as Flats-Longs-Units (FLU) are the most useful of all manipulatives for numbers. They can be extended to decimals through fractions as well as to algebra tiles.

These pre-grouped proportional manipulatives can be used to introduce numbers up to 999 and the four operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. In fact, they can be used to understand the division algorithm to find the square root!

Nets of solids can be used to make 3D shapes from posters or chart papers. Stage-wise list of solids and how to make them along with diagrams are included.

This is "how to make a low-cost fraction kit" inspired by Jodo Gyan (, Pullouts and other sources. It includes

1. fraction circles and sectors showing unit fractions

2. fractions strips which can be combined to form fraction wall

The story of Microbiology comes handy for a teacher to help build context of the kind of risks researchers take which in the longer run was hugely beneficial to the humankind. Stories of this kind help them see the underlying principles of how human body works and how it responds to pathogens.

Children love to play with rotating toys. How about making one, with the children with everyday materials?

Materials required: string, hollow plastic ball (any pipe with one end close, hollow bamboo with one end closed), thin bamboo stick (or barbecue stick), ice cream stick (or anything similar)

Points of Discussion:


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