The rebellion was bloodily suppressed in March 1707. Thus Alexey Bestuzhev-Ryumin attempted to build an alliance with Russia's "natural friends," Britain and Austria, against its "natural enemies," France and Prussia. Upon taking control of Russia in 1682, the tsar energetically redressed every aspect of Russian government, society, and military to more closely match its western neighbors. Peter then sent Sheremetev to Ingria, where he mopped up Swedish forces on the Lake Ladoga isthmus. Most prominent among them was a one Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, a childhood friend from Peter's days with the mock troops. Great Northern War 1701 - 1721 During the Great Northern War, Russia acquired territory of modern Estonia and Latvia after decades of war with Sweden, establishing a naval presence in the Baltic Sea and 'window on Europe'. [18][19][21], Following the battle, with the Russian army broken, Charles XII reasoned that the Russians were no longer a threat to him and turned south to deal with Poland instead of pursuing Russia. Peter also rapidly assembled a new fleet in the Baltic, resembling his southern one[18][19] & around that time in 1705 officially formed Russia's first marine unit. P. 25, List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Rus', First Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1492–1494), Second Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1500–1503), Third Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1507–1508), Fourth Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1512–1522), Fifth Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1534–1537), Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great, Red Army intervention in Afghanistan (1929), Red Army intervention in Afghanistan (1930), Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, South Vietnam is annexed by North Vietnam, Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, "Exploring Chinese History :: Politics :: Conflict and War :: Soviet Aggression", "9. The Grande Armée, 650,000 men (270,000 Frenchmen and many soldiers of allies or subject powers), crossed the Niemen River on June 23, 1812. The Russian officer corps had been fashioned into an elite force during Peter the Great's reign, but his policies had been abolished and command corps had fallen into disrepair. He pulled many of his troops, as well as Sheremetev, his most reliable general, south across the whole length of Russia to fight this new war. [5][8], Once he took over the governmental machinery, Peter found a distinct lack of skilled specialists with which to run his government. She often elected favorites to important positions, regardless of their actual experience, and thus corruption ran rampart as many tried to accumulate personal wealth and influence. Finally, proceeding the War, in August and September 1721, the Treaty of Nyastad was signed between Sweden and Russia. The engagement of women in combat roles continued on both sides during the Russian civil wars. As retribution, Menshikov sacked and razed Baturyn, slaughtering upwards of 6,000 men, women, and children and completely destroying Mazepa's capital. On the other hand, many miscreants, petty criminals and undesirables were punished by local officials by enlisting them for life in the Army. [29], In the resultant Treaty of Nystad, Peter was extremely lenient[according to whom?] In the only major battle, the Russians successfully held the Ottomans, unaccustomed to concentrated Russian firepower, at bay, but the fight was indeed hopeless, as Peter was trapped and facing a superior Turkish force. Her most important contribution was the formation of the Supreme Privy Council, a small group of advisers to the tsar (of which Menshikov was a part), and her development of the two royal guard regiments. Liberation of Manchuria, Inner Mongolia and northern Korea, and collapse of Japanese puppet states there. With Azov now firmly under Russian control, the campaign shifted east along the Black Sea. Estonian tribes start pay tribute to Rus. After the partition, Poland initiated an extensive reform program, which included a democratic constitution that alarmed reactionary factions in Poland and in Russia. Celebrating these victories, Peter took the title of imperator, and the Russian Empire was thus founded. Seeing that its ally would be crushed, France tried to mediate peace, but to no avail. "[64][65][66], See main article on Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). [1][2], The epoch of Russian history that Peter created has been variously known as the Imperial Age, because of the new connection between the ruler and land; the St. Petersburg Era, as the capital was moved to the newly built Saint Petersburg during his reign; and the All-Russian Period, which stresses the greater hegemony founded in the previously xenophobic country. The Russo-French alliance gradually became strained. The conflicting sides placed the blame for the fire on each other. The Decembrist Revolt was the first open breach between the government and liberal elements, a breach that would subsequently widen. It also includes wars fought outside Russia by the Russian military. New officers were pulled out of the nobility in Russia and hired from abroad, and the replacement of soldiers lost at Narva was accomplished through heavy-handed conscription. Secondly, it established and maintained the pattern that would develop in future wars between the Turks and the Russians: early Russian gains on river fortresses were to be nullified by the impact of disease, and deeper attacks cut off from their supply train by fast-moving Turkish and Tatar cavalry. Peter built six earthen redoubts in a line facing this probable Swedish charge, later augmenting them with four more, extending south in a "T". Russia maintained a scorched earth policy of retreat broken only by the battle of Borodino (September 7), when the Russians stood and fought. Austria and Russia signed a cornerstone defensive alliance in 1725, but Britain was cautious about such an alliance. Its power enabled it to play an increasingly assertive role in Europe's affairs. Although the partitioning of Poland greatly added to Russia's territory and prestige, it also created new difficulties. Russia's administration system at the time, the prikazy, was an antiquated, jumbled form of governance, with overlapping jurisdictions and lacking separation of powers. Charles had a strong base for this decision, for Peter's heavy-handed taxation had raised discontent against the crown. In 1722, Peter allied with Georgia and Armenia, looking to seize land at the expense of the declining Safavid Persia and deny it to the Ottomans. By 1743, with Swedish defeat complete and fears of a coalition to defend Sweden growing, Elizabeth finally brought Sweden to the bargaining table. During the early nineteenth century, Russia's population, resources, international diplomacy, and military forces made it one of the most powerful states in the world. Thus, with a need for shipbuilding knowledge and a desire to develop a mighty coalition against the Turks, Peter organized a 250-man expedition for Europe in March 1697. The two palace guard regiments would decide many such political issues in the future, resembling the old streltsy in this regard. This was not the first uprising in the enstrangled relations between Russia and the cossacks, but it followed the same pattern; the rebellion spread across the south widely, and at its climax may have involved as many as 100,000 men, but was ill-organized and badly led. Peter's father died in 1676, and Feodor, the late ruler's oldest son, was proclaimed tsar. Still, the war did demonstrate two things. Most of the streltsy wavered and took no action, and Sophia was forced, peacefully, off the throne. he attacked the main Turkish encampment at Stavuchany. Making no secret of his contempt for all things Russian, Peter created deep resentment by forcing Prussian military drills on the Russian military, attacking the Russian Orthodox Church, and depriving Russia of a military victory by establishing his sudden alliance with Prussia. More acute was the distinct lack of heavy cavalry regiments to perform shock attacks; Münnich introduced three elite guard cavalry regiments (peers to the three guard infantry regiments) and several regiments of heavy cuirassiers (named for the heavy breastplate or cuirass they wore) to fill out this role. The two countries often attempted to pass the burden of battle to one another. Sweden had additionally been egged on by French diplomats aiming to keep Russia out of the War of Austrian Succession. Soviet military presence in Czechoslovakia until 1991. He also vastly improved and expanded his siege artillery, and later, introduced light artillery. However, he faced a desolate tundra, deliberately laid bare by Russian forces and protected by the significant fortress of Smolensk. This was bloody and the Russians were eventually forced to back down and open the road to Moscow. After a fairly easy breakthrough, the Austrians fell into a disorderly retreat, and Fredrick began to advance on the Austrian capital of Prague, while also diverting forces to harass the French. Destruction of the Khazar Khaganate. However, while up to 80,000 women are estimated to have served with the Red Forces, the majority served in support roles as doctors, nurses, telephonists and clerks. Previous attempts to take the Crimea directly had failed, so Peter opted to lay siege to Turkish-controlled fortress of Azov at the mouth of the river Don. Charles XII met Peter's main army, dug in at Grodno, in early 1706. In reality, the campaign turned out to be a disaster; the 40,000 Russian troops, stymied by the enormous distances involved, were instead trapped on the river Prut by 130,000 Turkish troops. [61][62], Tsar Nicholas I (reigned 1825–1855) lavished attention on his very large army; with a population of 60–70 million people, the army included a million men. Alexei had renounced his interest in the throne in 1714, an action that made Peter furious; Aleksei was captured and tortured, and died of his injuries in 1718. This time, with heavier numbers, and Charles XII far away in Poland, Peter was able to take the city, albeit with heavy casualties. In the end, Menshikov overreached; his bold grabs at power alarmed the Russian nobility, and Peter, increasingly disliking Menshikov, allied himself with Prince Ivan Dolgorukov instead. [40][41], Encouraged and somewhat alarmed by the sudden Russian gains, Austria joined the war in 1736, aiming to seize control of a part of the Turkish Balkans for itself. Under Ottoman power, Turkey controlled the area of the Crimean Tatars at the mouth of the Sea of Azov. The King now saw Russia as a new target. The Naryshkins, backing Peter, won an early victory, and Peter was proclaimed tsar in April 1682, with his mother as the acting regent. Following the successful Azov campaign, Peter was still negotiating a peace treaty with the Turks, but even so he was negotiating a coalition with Augustus II of Poland and with the Frederick IV of Denmark. It was not until July of that year that the Treaty of Constantinople was finally signed, preserving Peter's gains in Turkey, and freeing him to make war with Sweden. Sweden, Russia and the Great Northern War, to 1740 – failure and a new age of liberty in Sweden. He formed mock troops with his friends, the sons of nobles and servitors, and staged mock battles. [56], The history of the Russian army in this era was linked to the name of Alexander Suvorov a Russian general, reckoned one of a few great generals in history who never lost a battle. [48][50][52], Overall, 1757 was a grim year for Fredrick. [42], Peter Lacy led the invasion of Finland, defended by only a tiny force, in the fall of 1741. The king's youth and inexperience, coupled with his holdings of several major Baltic ports, made the Swedish empire a tantalizing target for partition by its neighbors. Peter founded a new Russia by shattering the old, and by his death in 1725 Russia had taken Sweden's place as Europe's dominant eastern power. with the Swedes, keeping Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, and part of southern Finland (especially Saint Petersburg) in exchange for the return of most of Finland to the Swedes and the payment of 2 million silver riksdaler. 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