North Sea Empire and Anglo-Scandinavian Empire are terms used by historians to refer to the personal union of the kingdoms of England, Denmark [lower-alpha 1] and sometimes Norway for most of the period between 1013 and 1042 towards the end of the Viking Age. 5 5. [33] In England, Cnut assiduously promoted the interests of the Church, and this brought him acceptance from the Christian rulers of Europe that no other Scandinavian king had previously been accorded. Also, it produces a lot of titanium and iron in Scandinavian Norway, plus Norwegian … Lauring, p. 57: "Now that a single king had assumed power after the pattern of Western Europe, the moment that king went away and omitted to leave strong men in charge behind him, or left a weak one, [the viking threat] became fatally weakened". [11] The precise outcome is disputed, but Cnut came out best; Olaf fled and the threat to Denmark was dispelled. He was recognized by the Roman Catholic Church as patron saint of Denmark in 1101. Main objective: Controlling the kingdoms of Norway, England, and Denmark, form an empire and name it the North Sea Empire as Harald Hardrada. [47] As Stenton points out, by appointing different sons his heirs in different countries, he demonstrated that he did not have "the deliberate intention of founding a northern empire . [30], By the early 11th century, England had been Christian for centuries; the Danelaw was in transition from paganism to Christianity, [31] but the Scandinavian countries were still predominantly pagan. Categories & Ages. Harthacnut, sometimes referred to as Canute III, was King of Denmark from 1035 to 1042 and King of England from 1040 to 1042. [37], However, it was left to another of Cnut's earls, Siward, to protect his earldom of Northumbria by consolidating English power in Scotland; at his death in 1055 he, not the king, was overlord of all the territory that the Kingdom of Strathclyde had annexed early the previous century. It was probably either overlordship or disputed rule; Cnut did not have to be present in Sweden to order the minting of coins, coins were also minted asserting he ruled Ireland,[24][25] and Swedish history at this early date is very uncertain. This ephemeral Norse-ruled empire was a thalassocracy, its components only connected by and dependent upon the sea. In 1018 Cnut revived at least two earldoms in Wessex and at a meeting at Oxford, his followers and representatives of the English agreed that he would govern under the laws of King Edgar. [50] And his sons could not hold it together. He participated in the Battle of Hjörungavágr, the Battle of Svolder and the conquest of England by King Canute the Great. The Norse Empire (Norse: ᚿᚮᚱᚱᛆᛂᚿ ᚼᛂᛁᛘᛋᚡᛂᛚᛑᛁ,"Norræn heimsveldi"), sometimes called Nordicaor Scandia is a sovereign state in Europa, occupying Britain, Greenland, Scandinavia and large parts of Germania and Slavia. King-Cnut-and-the-North-Sea-Empire. But on 30 November 1016, Edmund in turn died, leaving Cnut as King of England. [lower-alpha 2], Cnut was the younger son of the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard. He was the son of Earl Hákon Sigurðarson and brother of the legendary Aud Haakonsdottir of Lade. While there he sent his subjects in England a letter saying he was abroad to avert an unspecified "danger",[8] and he only returned to quell incipient rebellions. Noun 1. [14][15], Olaf II had extended his power throughout Norway while Jarl Erik was with Cnut in England. [53][54][55] He died suddenly in June 1042 "as he stood at his drink" at the wedding feast of Tovi the Proud, one of the Danish thegns of his father's court. The Danish House of Knýtlinga was a ruling royal house in Middle Age Scandinavia and England. The whole reason William I ("the Conqueror") of Normandy invaded England in 1066 was to make good on his claim to the throne that he was to inherit from his childless cousin Edward the Confessor. The raven banner was used by Cnut the Great as many various scandinavian rulers, Schleswig and a strip of ancient Danish territory between Hedeby and the Eider, The History of the Norman Conquest of England, "The Hiberno–Norse Coinage of Ireland, ~995 to ~1150", "Den Store Dansk (Great Danish Encyclopedia)", List of English words of Old Norse origin, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy. North Sea Empire and Anglo-Scandinavian Empire are terms used by historians to refer to the personal union of the kingdoms of England, Denmark[a] and Norway for most of the period between 1013 and 1042 towards the end of the Viking Age. And the same year Magnus died.' Thorkell likely acted as his regent during his absences, [36] until they had a falling out and he was outlawed in 1021. But on 30 November 1016, Edmund in turn died, leaving Cnut as King of England. She was regent of Norway from 1030 to 1035. North Sea Empire is a solo project by Andreas Rasch, with music that is best classed as a mixture of pop and alternative music. He was the son of Waltheof I, ealdorman of Bamburgh, whose ancient family had ruled from the castle of Bamburgh on the Northumbrian coast. Its most famous king was Cnut the Great, who gave his name to this dynasty. Emma of Normandy was Queen of England, Denmark and Norway through her marriages to Æthelred the Unready (1002–1016) and Cnut the Great (1017–1035). The North Sea Empire collapsed immediately once Cnut died in 1035. [48] It may have been simply the custom of his people. Ulf was a Danish earl (jarl) and regent of Denmark. Stenton, p. 397: "the first viking leader to be admitted into the civilised fraternity of Christian kings". At the height of his power, when Cnut ruled all three kingdoms (1028–1035), he was the most powerful ruler in western Europe after the Holy Roman Emperor. Cnut blockaded London, but was forced to leave to replenish his supplies and was beaten by Edmund at the Battle of Otford; however, following the Danes as they raided into Essex, Edmund was in turn defeated at the Battle of Assandun. He secured relaxation of tolls levied on pilgrims journeying to Rome from Northern Europe, and on Papal fees for English archbishops receiving their pallium; he also began a relationship with Conrad that led to the Emperor's son Henry marrying Cnut's daughter Gunnhild and before that to the Emperor ceding to Denmark Schleswig and a strip of ancient Danish territory between Hedeby and the Eider that the Germans had occupied as a buffer zone against the Danes. A large contingent of Danish ships joined him, and Olaf withdrew into the Oslo Fjord while Cnut sailed along the coast, landing at various points and receiving oaths of allegiance from the local chieftains. [28], The Danes had more reason to grumble about Cnut's absences than the English; he reigned primarily from England, leaving regents in charge in Denmark. [18] A verse by the Icelandic skald Óttarr svarti calls Cnut "king of the Danes, the Irish, the English and the Islanders"; presumably Norway is omitted because Cnut had not yet come to power there. He an aa ruled some o Swaden und thi' Holy Roman Empire. This popular portrayal is contrary to the content of the original legend, which portrayed him as a wise king who rebuked his courtiers for their fawning behaviour. However, their rule was considered oppressive by the Norwegians. In 1030, Olaf attempted to return, but the people of the Trondheim area did not want him back and he was defeated and killed at the Battle of Stiklestad. Ælfgifu tried to impose new taxation and stricter controls on a people who valued their independence and especially resented that the new customs were Danish. After Helgeå, Cnut also claimed to rule "part of Sweden" together with England, Denmark, and Norway. ... [H]e was lord of four important realms and the overlord of other kingdoms. His fleet all but controlled two important seas, the North and the Baltic. [32] Cnut's father, Sweyn, had initially been pagan but in later life had been basically Christian. While there he sent his subjects in England a letter saying he was abroad to avert an unspecified "danger", [8] and he only returned to quell incipient rebellions. Svein Knutsson was the son of Cnut the Great, king of Denmark, Norway, and England, and his first wife Ælfgifu of Northampton, a Mercian noblewoman. about Cnut the Great: the Myth, the Man, and the Multi-National Viking Monarch. Ælfgifu tried to impose new taxation and stricter controls on a people who valued their independence and especially resented that the new customs were Danish.[44][45][46]. docx, 548 KB. It was probably either overlordship or disputed rule; Cnut did not have to be present in Sweden to order the minting of coins, coins were also minted asserting he ruled Ireland, [24] [25] and Swedish history at this early date is very uncertain. [57]. [22] He had coins minted either in the capital, Sigtuna, or in Lund, then part of Denmark, with the inscription CNVT REX SW ("Cnut King of the Swedes"). He died the following year and his realm was divided. North Sea Empire and Anglo-Scandinavian Empire are terms used by historians to refer to the personal union of the kingdoms of England, Denmark[a] and Norway for most of the period between 1013 and 1042 towards the end of the Viking Age. The Vikings and Cnut’s North Sea Empire. North Sea Empire. The Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British Empire sought to dominate commerce both on the North Sea and through it. [but] behaved as at least a nominal Christian in later life. [47] As Stenton points out, by appointing different sons his heirs in different countries, he demonstrated that he did not have "the deliberate intention of founding a northern empire . Bonus objective: Take the parts of Sweden Cnut had control of. Harthacnut then became king of England, reuniting it with Denmark, but made a generally bad impression as king. It can also be called more specifically the Anglo-Scandinavian Empire. [43], In Norway, Cnut stayed into the new year and then left Jarl Erik's son Hakon in charge as his regent (he had served Sweyn Forkbeard in the same capacity), but he drowned the following winter. [56] However Magnus of Norway, utilising the agreement he had made with Harthacnut in 1040 took control of Denmark and had plans to invade England and reunite the kingdoms and Empire. This may have been an effective own goal as it destroyed one of the key political and military components of Sveyn Forkbeard and Cnut the Great's rise to dominence. [17] In 1024 Cnut had offered to let Olaf govern Norway as his vassal;[18] but after Helgeå, he set about undermining his unpopular rule with bribes, and in 1028 set out with 50 ships to subjugate Norway. He was a son of the Scanian chieftain Strut-Harald, and a brother of Jarl Sigvaldi, Hemingr and Tófa. The Londoners chose his son Edmund as their king, while most of the nobles met at Southampton and swore fealty to Cnut. Slain by rebels in 1086, he was the first Danish king to be canonized. The North Sea, though often an area of conflict, has an extensive history of maritime commerce and trade routes between its coastal nations whose economies and industries were also able to exploit its resources. North Sea Empire and Anglo-Scandinavian Empire are terms used by historians to refer to the personal union of the kingdoms of England, Denmark [lower-alpha 1] and Norway for most of the period between 1013 and 1042 towards the end of the Viking Age. Cnut took Olaf's fleet by surprise and took the battle to the Swedish fleet at the Battle of the Helgeå. History; 14-16; View more. As a matter of fact, in Norway, it was already collapsing: by the winter of 1033, Swein and Ælfgifu were so unpopular that they were forced to leave Trondheim. The North Sea Alliance or NSA is a faction introduced in Rising Tide. North Sea (Anglo‐Scandinavian) Empire. "And then Sveyn expelled Magnus from Denmark and entered the country by a huge carnage, and the Danes paid him a large sum of money and recognized him as king. Harold's nickname "Harefoot" is first recorded as "Harefoh" or "Harefah" in the twelfth century in the history of Ely Abbey, and according to some late medieval chroniclers it meant that he was "fleet of foot". After Helgeå, Cnut also claimed to rule "part of Sweden" together with England, Denmark, and Norway. This may have been an effective own goal as it destroyed one of the key political and military components of Sveyn Forkbeard and Cnut the Great's rise to dominence. 3 synonyms for Canute the Great: Canute, Cnut, Knut. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle said of him that he never did anything royal during his entire reign. Ulfcytel was an Anglo-Saxon nobleman. Godwin was the father of King Harold Godwinson and of Edith of Wessex, who in 1045 married King Edward the Confessor. This is confirmed by the contemporary Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which reports that in 1047 Sveyn asked England for 50 ships to help in the battle against Magnus. [1] This ephemeral Norse -ruled empire was a thalassocracy, its components only connected by and dependent upon the sea. In the probably later heading to a 1027 letter sent to his English subjects: Brita Malmer, "The 1954 Rone Hoard and Some Comments on Styles and Inscriptions of Certain Scandinavian Coins from the Early Eleventh Century", in. Harold I, also known as Harold Harefoot, was King of England from 1035 to 1040. [26], In addition to part of Sweden, of which he or the person who wrote the heading to his letter claimed he was King part of, Cnut received tribute from the Wends and was allied with the Poles; in 1022, together with Godwin and Ulf Jarl, he took a fleet east into the Baltic to confirm his overlordship of the coastal areas that the Danish kings dominated from Jomsborg. Edmund's reign was marred by a war he had inherited from his father; his cognomen "Ironside" was given to him "because of his valour" in resisting the Danish invasion led by Cnut the Great. [52], Harthacnut prepared an invasion fleet to wrest England from his half-brother, but the latter died in 1040 before it could be used. He secured relaxation of tolls levied on pilgrims journeying to Rome from Northern Europe, and on Papal fees for English archbishops receiving their pallium ; he also began a relationship with Conrad that led to the Emperor's son Henry marrying Cnut's daughter Gunnhild and before that to the Emperor ceding to Denmark Schleswig and a strip of ancient Danish territory between Hedeby and the Eider that the Germans had occupied as a buffer zone against the Danes. Sweyn Forkbeard was king of Denmark from 986 to 1014. [27], Immediately after his return from Rome, Cnut led an army into Scotland and made vassals of Malcolm, the High King of Scotland, and two other kings, [28] one of whom, Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, was a sea-king whose lands included Galloway and the Isle of Man and would become king of Dublin in 1036. As one historian put it: Western Geatland or Blekinge have been suggested. Edmund Ironside was King of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. Thorkell the Tall, also known as Thorkell the High in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was a prominent member of the Jomsviking order and a notable lord. Stenton, pp. [48] Swein died shortly afterwards. He died in 1035 and his realm was again divided, but his successor in Denmark, Harthacnut, inherited England in 1040 and ruled it until his death. [23] Most England runestones are in Uppland. He had built an Empire.". Tes Paid Licence. In 1034 the leader of the army that had rebuffed and killed King Olaf at Stiklestad went together with one of the king's loyal followers to bring his young son Magnus back from Gardariki to rule, [51] and in autumn 1035, a few weeks before Cnut's death, Swein and his mother had to flee the country altogether and go to Denmark. [2], The first king to unite all three kingdoms was Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark since 986 and of Norway since 1000, when he conquered England in 1013. ... Swein's tepid patronage of Christianity ...". The Empire's expanse. [which] would remain united after his death." [56] However Magnus of Norway, utilising the agreement he had made with Harthacnut in 1040 took control of Denmark and had plans to invade England and reunite the kingdoms and Empire. Though technically Canute was counted among the kings, his position among his fellow-monarchs was truly imperial. [41] By the end of his life, he had entirely replaced the Scandinavian inner circle who advised him with Englishmen. His realm is often referred to as the North Sea Empire, or... Read Later. . [44] [45] [46]. . Add new comment. [7], King Harald died childless in 1018 or 1019, leaving the country without a king. All these and likely also the Welsh [29] paid tribute, on the model of the Danegeld that Æthelred had instituted to pay off the Danes; and Cnut was thus reasserting the dominion over the Celtic kingdoms that recent English kings had had to let lapse, as well as punishing those who had supported Olaf against him. Subscribed. Close. Saints and spies, pirates and philosophers, artists and intellectuals: they all criss-crossed the grey North Sea in the so-called “dark ages,” the years between the fall of the Roman Empire and the beginning of Europe’s mastery over the oceans. The Vikings had been raiding England as far back as 793 when they looted a monastery in Lindisfarne, Northumbria. [18], Early in 1017, probably because he was king by right of conquest not more normal means, Cnut divided England into 4 earldoms on the Scandinavian model: Wessex he governed directly, and of his allies Thorkell the Tall became Earl of East Anglia, Eric Haakonsson retained Northumbria, which Cnut had already given him, and Eadric Streona became Earl of Mercia. [17] In 1024 Cnut had offered to let Olaf govern Norway as his vassal; [18] but after Helgeå, he set about undermining his unpopular rule with bribes, and in 1028 set out with 50 ships to subjugate Norway. Godwin of Wessex became one of the most powerful earls in England under the Danish king Cnut the Great and his successors. [34] In Norway, in contrast, he built churches and was both respectful and generous to the clergy, but also made allies of the heathen chieftains, and unlike Olaf, did not make laws benefitting the Church until his power was on a solid footing. Before the decisive battle for London could be fought, Æthelred died on 23 April 1016. [23] Most England runestones are in Uppland. Cnut made Godwin the first Earl of Wessex. Cnut also prepared to hand over Denmark to one of his sons: upon taking power in Norway, he held a great court in Nidaros and proclaimed Harthacnut, his son by Emma, king of Denmark. The North Sea Empire, or Anglo-Scandinavian Empire, is a name used refer to the personal union of the kingdoms of England, Denmark and Norway for most of the period between 1013 and 1042 towards the end of the Viking Age. All these and likely also the Welsh[29] paid tribute, on the model of the Danegeld that Æthelred had instituted to pay off the Danes; and Cnut was thus reasserting the dominion over the Celtic kingdoms that recent English kings had had to let lapse, as well as punishing those who had supported Olaf against him. Uhtred or Uchtred, called the Bold, was the ealdorman of all Northumbria from 1006 to 1016, when he was assassinated. The development of European civilization has been greatly affected by maritime traffic on the North Sea. The Norse Empire is bordered by Burgundy to the west and south, Germania to the south, Khaganligi to the east and south and Perm to the east. The terms of their reconciliation in Denmark in 1023, with an exchange of sons for fosterage and Thorkell becoming Cnut's regent in Denmark, suggests that Thorkell had won them with an armed force. Cnut was his brother's heir and went to Denmark in 1019 to claim it. [53] [54] [55] He died suddenly in June 1042 "as he stood at his drink" at the wedding feast of Tovi the Proud, one of the Danish thegns of his father's court. [35], Anglo-Saxon historian Frank Stenton points out that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has relatively little to say about Cnut's reign except to note his frequent travels abroad, indicating that he was in strong control of England. This expedition sponsor is led by Duncan Hughes. [2], The first king to unite all three kingdoms was Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark since 986 and of Norway since 1000, when he conquered England in 1013. [5], In summer 1017 he cemented his power by marrying Æthelred's widow, Emma, although he had previously married an English noblewoman, Ælfgifu of Northampton. [22] He had coins minted either in the capital, Sigtuna, or in Lund, then part of Denmark, with the inscription CNVT REX SW ("Cnut King of the Swedes"). At first glance Harthacnut's death seems to have brought about the end of the North Sea Empire. Though technically Canute was counted among the kings, his position among his fellow-monarchs was truly imperial. Cnut took Olaf's fleet by surprise and took the battle to the Swedish fleet at the Battle of the Helgeå. [48] Swein died shortly afterwards. A large contingent of Danish ships joined him, and Olaf withdrew into the Oslo Fjord while Cnut sailed along the coast, landing at various points and receiving oaths of allegiance from the local chieftains. 396–97: "Swein ... first appears in history as the leader of a heathen reaction . [4], Cnut's brother Harald became king of Denmark, but with help from Eric Haakonsson of Norway, Cnut raised a new invasion fleet of his own and returned to England in summer 1015. The English were divided by intrigue among the king, his sons, and other nobles; within four months one of Æthelred's sons had pledged allegiance to Cnut and he controlled Wessex, the historic heart of the kingdom. Harthacnut then became king of England, reuniting it with Denmark, but made a generally bad impression as king. However, the invasion fell apart: the men of the Kingdom of Lindsey, who had promised to supply horses for a tactical raid, were not ready before the English nobles had reinstalled King Æthelred, whom they had previously sent into exile, after forcing him to agree to govern less harshly. Cnut Sweynsson, known also as Cnut the Great (sometimes spelled as Canute), was the ruler of England, Denmark, Norway, and parts of Sweden. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle said of him that he never did anything royal during his entire reign. [28], The Danes had more reason to grumble about Cnut's absences than the English; he reigned primarily from England, leaving regents in charge in Denmark. Get this resource as part of a bundle and save up to 32%. He died the following year and his realm was divided. She was the daughter of the Norman ruler Richard the Fearless and Gunnor. Description. 1/3. [38][39][40] He replaced Thorkell as his primary advisor in England with Godwin, an Englishman whom he made Earl of Wessex,[41] while within three years of their reconciliation he had also been replaced as regent of Denmark, by Ulf Jarl, Cnut's sister's husband, whom Cnut also made guardian of his son by Emma, Harthacnut. The North Sea Empire collapsed immediately once Cnut died in 1035. [16] Cnut's enmity with him extended further back: Æthelred had returned to England in a fleet provided by Olaf. CK3. Please ignore the Karling fuelled, tentacular mess of border gore to the south. The North Sea Empire: A Knýtling AAR Table of Contents: Greetings, story-readers! Cnut was his brother's heir and went to Denmark in 1019 to claim it. He was apparently the ealdorman of East Anglia from 1004 to his death at the battle of Assandun in 1016, although he is not called an ealdorman in any of the charters he witnessed. Magnus Olafsson, better known as Magnus the Good, was King of Norway from 1035 and King of Denmark from 1042, ruling over both countries until his death in 1047. Thorkell was the chief commander of the Jomvikings and the legendary stronghold Jomsborg, on the Island of Wollin. Bonus objective #2: Take all of Britain and Sweden. Synonyms for North Sea Empire in Free Thesaurus. Thi' North Sea Empire is a nime' thit' refers tae thi' dominions o Cnut I "Kanute thi Great", king o Ingland, Norawa und Denmark. [5], In summer 1017 he cemented his power by marrying Æthelred's widow, Emma, although he had previously married an English noblewoman, Ælfgifu of Northampton. The Roman Empire and the Vikings both extended their contemporaneous territories across the sea. [49] In any event, it was clear throughout Cnut's reign that the weakness of his empire lay in the impossibility of finding loyal and competent regents to govern when he could not be present. The Thingmen was a standing army in the service of the Kings of England during the period 1013-51, financed by direct taxation which had its origins in the tribute known as Danegeld. Cnut also prepared to hand over Denmark to one of his sons: upon taking power in Norway, he held a great court in Nidaros and proclaimed Harthacnut, his son by Emma, king of Denmark. [12][13], In 1027, Cnut travelled to Rome, partly to expiate his sin for having Jarl Ulf killed the previous Christmas, partly to attend the coronation of Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor and to demonstrate his importance as a ruler. He had built an Empire. 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