For much of the Administration's new naval strategy doesn't hold water. His other major books included The Life of Nelson (1897) and The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence (1913). Shift from open ocean, blue water strategy to littoral, expeditionary focus ... Voice: In the late 19th century, Adm Mahan modernized the US Navy and stressed a study of naval doctrine. Our "whiteboard-to-wet in six months" mantra inspires our team to reach new heights (and depths), to the benefit of our customers. In The Interest of America in Sea Power, Present and Future (1897), Mahan sought to arouse his fellow Americans to a realization of their maritime responsibilities. Mahan was cited by many for fueling the great naval race between Germany and Great Britain, but the charge was speculative. But Mahan did not live to observe that naval warfare would evolve from one-dimensional surface conflicts between massive dreadnoughts dueling within sight of one another, to three-dimensional war between unseen antagonists in the air, on the surface and below the sea. The Chicago Times wrote that Mahan showed that “control of the sea has throughout history been the prime factor in deciding the leadership, the prosperity, and often the existence of nations.” The Chicago Tribune praised Mahan’s “great theme of naval strategy and tactics.” A British reviewer called Mahan “one of the highest intellects in the naval world.” For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions At a time of dramatic international competition and shifting balances of power, Mahan’s representation of the influence of sea power on history had precisely that effect of historical in… Maritime Strategy of any nation resonates with two underlining facts, one is the objective of carrying out warfare at sea to affect outcomes on land and that the success of maritime … Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. 39 Mahan, Problem of Asia, p. 135. Douglas MacArthur, U.S. general in World War I, World War II and Korea. Mahan was strongly influenced about the importance of sea power while reading the history of the Roman Empire, and ironically, several of Mahan’s maxims of sea power appeared in some form within young Theodore Roosevelt’s well-received The Naval War of 1812. Blue Water navy is power projection which is necessary” for a “power like India.” 3. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. At his death in 1914, at the outbreak of the Great War, Mahan’s theories dominated naval thinking. This aspect of Mahan’s teaching is largely responsible for the neglect by many blue-water navies, and the U.S. Navy in particular, of so-called ―defensive‖ tasks, such as defense and protection of merchant shipping and mine warfare. 31 Generally speaking, “blue water” connotes maritime operations far from shore, while “brown water” refers to littoral operations. option. Admiral Gorshkov waited patiently for his opportunity to transform the Soviet Navy from a submarine-dominated, sea denial force with a coastal and defensive orientation into a blue water fleet – though still a sub-centric one – that had strategic strike, power projection, and global presence missions. Beijing’s maritime strategy is now guided by the current geopolitical situation and regional trends and thus, it is trying to create a balance between developing a blue water economy while trying to create its heavy weight in the maritime sphere. If Mahan Ran the Great Pacific War: An Analysis of World War II Naval Strategy - Kindle edition by Adams, John A.. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Recognizing that miscalculation and hubris are not beyond America's capacity, the editors wish more than anything else to debate and clarify what America faces on the world stage and how it ought to respond. Central Proposition: (Pg 95) "Naval Strategy has for its end to found, support, and increase, as well in peace as in war, the sea power of a country." 4 Control of the sea, or lack thereof, determines the ... blue water navy on both coasts, and use it … Access supplemental materials and multimedia. With discussions of what insights turn-of-the-century theorists such as Alfred Thayer Mahan and Julian Corbett would have on modern maritime strategy so popular right now, ... geared for blue water conflict, is not geared to fight the actual naval combat for which we must prepare i.e. Sara Miller McCune founded SAGE Publishing in 1965 to support the dissemination of usable knowledge and educate a global community. World Affairs Mahan was cited by many for fueling the great naval race between Germany and Great Britain, but the charge was speculative. To the 'blue-water' school of strategy in late- Victorian and Edwardian Great Britain, to Cabot Lodge, Teddy Roosevelt, and other advocates of US expansionism into the Caribbean and the Pacific, and to Tirpitz 9 Mahanian theory, furthermore, became integral to the U.S. Navy as an institution. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading If Mahan Ran the Great Pacific War: An Analysis of World War II Naval Strategy. Mahan believed that coastal Naval-minded Roosevelt first as Assistant Secretary of the Navy and then President, counted him as a friend and close advisor. The two-thirds of a Such a navy will likely have the appearance of strength, but will be short-lived and financially precariousbut all the more so if the rival simultaneously seeks to dominate on land and at sea. The book carried the grand title The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660-1783 and its author was a shy United States naval officer-turned war college professor named Alfred Thayer Mahan. Mahan credits the ancient Syracusan, Hermocrates, for being an intuitive genius of sea power—for fashioning a naval strategy that could have balked the Athenian invasion of … China’s “turn to Mahan” is similar to India’s, as is Japan’s. Mahan identified control of the sea as the key to naval strategy, and the key to achieving control of the sea was the defeat of the opponent’s fleet at sea (as opposed to targeting merchant vessels at their points of departure or arrival). The first cycle of Navy strategic leadership began with Alfred Thayer Mahan. Request Permissions. Although Mahan never used the phrase command of the sea, his description of the essence of naval warfare nonetheless describes it: Mahan on Naval Strategy. SAGE is a leading international provider of innovative, high-quality content publishing more than 900 journals and over 800 new books each year, spanning a wide range of subject areas. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. These sea lanes, stressed Mahan, “are the most important single element in strategy, political or military.” JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. supported cost effective bulk transportation of goods and resources. Navy strategic leadership has waxed and waned in three long cycles since the Civil War. Select the purchase With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Americans can be grateful that their Navy is sturdier than current naval doctrine. Mahan on Naval Strategy Central Proposition: "Naval Strategy has for its end to found, support, and increase, as well in peace as in war, the sea power of a country." A growing selection of library products includes archives, data, case studies and video. The Kaiser and his naval minister Tirpitz embraced Mahan’s thesis because it showed how a numerically inferior fleet could overcome a stronger fleet like England’s, even in a stronger enemy’s home waters. Alfred Thayer Mahan has been called America’s nineteenth-century ‘evangelist of sea power’ and the intellectual father of the modern US Navy. SAGE remains majority owned by our founder and after her lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures the company’s continued independence. of the unclassified The Maritime Strategy in January 1986, which was the last, published, official strat-egy for 21 years (Hattendorf 2004, 2008). Mahan’s treatise was that trade is the source of national power, and a strong, blue-water navy was essential to a stable trade. Mahan is missing, too, yet we know that Chinese naval strategists have invoked Mahan in promoting a “blue water” navy that can achieve “command of the sea” in certain potential theaters of war. Dragon’s Naval Strategy: From Mahan to Corbett. By the time he published his sequel in 1892, The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire 1793-1812, Mahan had become an international celebrity and sought-after advisor by heads of state. He formalized the naval missions of forward presence, sea control and power projection. It is not to serve as a Mahan -style world ranging commerce protector. Whilst some analysts have summarised8 9the individual works of these two authors, others have undertaken a The Maritime Strategy was largely based on Alfred T. Mahan’s notions of command of the sea. Naval strategy, and the related concept of maritime strategy, concerns the overall strategy for achieving victory at sea, including the planning and conduct of campaigns, the movement and disposition of naval forces by which a commander secures the advantage of fighting at a place convenient to himself, and … Naval strategy is the planning and conduct of war at sea, the naval equivalent of military strategy on land. strategy employed by China to secure both its land and sea lines of communication, safeguard its energy supplies, and diversify its economic resources Alfred Thayer Mahan, a prominent theorist on seapower and early geopolitician, encapsulated his ideas in his classic book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783, published in 1890. All Rights Reserved. Secondly, Mahan contends that at certain times it may even be a good idea for a state to encourage its competitors to build a blue-water navy independent of a commercial fleet. World Affairs is a small journal that argues the big ideas behind U.S. foreign policy. MAHAN'S NAVAL STRATEGY es sea power is the key to national greatness—Mahan and his contribution to the American century has been largely forgotten. To begin with, let me compare the ideas of the two ‘blue water’ Western thinkers who are, arguably, also the best known of the lot 7— Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan and Sir Julian Corbett . ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. Protecting ports and sea lines of communication, and extending state power, required ocean going fleets rather than coastal defense forces. Control of the sea, or lack thereof, determines the rise and fall of a nation. His theories have a timeless appeal, and Chinese analysts now routinely invoke Mahan’s writings, exhorting their nation to build a powerful navy. 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