Workers on a lunch break in Shanghai. Donate today — in any amount — to become a Marketplace Investor. Housing Fund. According to government figures released last month, inflation in China in May rose by 2.7% from a year ago. 6,742. earning an average gross salary of CNY 944,019. But, even in the smallest cities, it is attractive. while Financial Analyst earn CNY 132,454. See all … Chinese Super League set for mass exodus with new salary cap introduced forcing ex-Chelsea star to take 86 per cent cut . Then, it really depends on the following: A. The local government has not released statistics for monthly average wages for either non-private or private units for 2017. Why would you need over 12 times the average to be considered above average? Lee’s wax figure was unveiled at the Madame Tussauds in Shanghai in April 2013. On average, the typical salary for both public and private institutions is between RMB 10,000-RMB 15,000 ($1,400-$2,200) a month. Not everyone has time to shop for groceries and cook. 7,152. Workers in Shanghai, China with more years of work experience Medical Insurance Fund. Work Injury Fund. We’ve identified 11 states where the typical salary for an Average job is above the national average. Extra $300 in federal jobless benefits is making a difference, but is it enough? Set your yearly income. Texture Artist Salary: $60,000 is a fairly standard mean average, ranging up to around $80,000 in some location hotspots. Construction & Labor Workers enjoy the highest gross average salaries (CNY 728,000), CNY 358,564. Teaching jobs in Dubai offer a lucrative tax-free income, usually ranging from 7000 – 16,000 AED ($1900 – 4400) per month. Part-Time | 18 months+ | On-campus & Online ____ Hybrid MBA. A car is still a luxury item for most families in China. Trends in wages decreased by -100.0 percent in Q4 2020. This estimate is based upon 250 PwC Director salary report(s) provided by employees or estimated based upon statistical methods. The pandemic-induced economic inequality gap is widening. The city of Shanghai tops others with an average monthly salary of about $1130, followed by Beijing with $980, and Shenzhen with $940. The typical PwC Director salary is $207,638. Let’s have a look at the salary structure of investment banking in Hong Kong – source: efinancialcareers.com. Deposit two month's rent, key money two month's rent. On average, the typical salary for both public and private institutions is between RMB 10,000-RMB 15,000 ($1,400-$2,200) a month. Minimum salaries are equal to 12,000 RMB ($1,750) and can reach 17,000 RMB ($2,500), depending on your qualification and previous experience. Know your worth. The difference between the most paid and the lowest paid fields is 378.16%. Tesla Inc. said on Monday that it has initiated the delivery of its Shanghai-made Model Y sports utility vehicles to customers in China, Reuters has learnt. COMPARE YOUR SALARY WITH OTHERS » See More Historical Data in Shanghai; See Analysis of our Consumer Price Basket in Shanghai On top of that, imports from the U.S. have been slapped with tariffs in the trade dispute. in the first quarter of 2018. Average salary in Shanghai is Teaching English in … “For electric cars, [the] license is free on the condition that you have purchased your own parking spot, which, in the city center, costs 700,000 yuan ($102,000) to 800,000 yuan ($116,000),” he said. Shanghai led the rankings of starting salaries for bachelors and master degree holders in four first-tier cities in the past year, with 4,626 yuan (US$ 726) and 6,545 yuan per month. Personal income in the US sank 1.1 percent month-over-month in November of 2020, much more than market forecasts of a 0.3 percent decline. Per CNN Money, the average net worth for ages 65+ is $232,000, but per your analysis the average net worth of the above average 65 year old is $2,871,500. Median Salary The median salary is 33,000 CNY per month, which means that half (50%) of … Director salaries at PwC can range from $75,932 - $316,220. Maternity Fund. A cost of housing score of 1 indicates most expensive while a 10 represents cheapest. EIN: 41-0953924. Unless your girlfriend owns an apartment outright or has minimal repayments on it, and/or is on a good salary herself, I wouldn't expect to be able to put away a great deal each month, unless you plan on having a fairly austere lifestyle. Lee Min-ho: Salary, Networth. However, some private institutions and international schools offer salaries closer to RMB 20,000 ($2,800) per month and as high as RMB 30,000 ($4,300) per month. Inform your career path by finding your customized salary. Income tax & ACC (per year) -0.00: Kiwisaver (default @ 3% per year) + Opt out 0.00. About Shanghai, Shanghai The average salary in Shanghai, Shanghai is ¥273k. So, while a worker in Hunan might be getting around 1,000 CNY per month, a worker in Shanghai is entitled to a salary that goes over 2,000 CNY. Being able to drive also comes down to luck. We will take the average, saving 31% per month. If you have a bachelor’s degree and a TEFL certificate but no experience , you can expect to earn $1,500 - 2,900 USD per month teaching at an after-school language training center in China. The average monthly salary for Americans varies widely, depending on occupation choices. Family of four estimated monthly costs: 30,012元 Single person estimated monthly costs: 19,488元 WARNING! Median Salary The median salary is 26,600 CNY per month, which means that half (50%) of … Average monthly salaries for companies of different sizes. Income (per year) 50,000 : Income (per year) + Edit50,000. The average salary in the UK is £29,600 per year (or £1,950 per month). The term “fruit freedom” has become a buzzword on the internet as consumers complain that prices have soared so high that they cannot afford simple pleasures like lychees or imported cherries without worrying. For example, workers in Shanghai made an average of RMB 9,723 (US$1,405) per month through the first quarter of 2019 – over four times the local minimum wage. Transportation is very cheap, with local public transport starting at around $0.30 and taxis from just $0.50 per … Topping the list is Massachusetts, with Hawaii and Rhode Island close behind in second and third. Average salary for Project Manager in Shanghai, China is CNY 410,423. The average welder gross salary in Shanghai, China is ¥123,368 or an equivalent hourly rate of ¥59. Biden acts on evictions, foreclosures, but long-term housing crisis looms, Coke, Audi and Budweiser will sit out the Super Bowl. Most people save for when they, or their elderly parents, get sick. The average salary for a Teacher is 元134,452 in Shanghai, China. Average take home earning is CNY 320,197 (Net). 20-99. Lower average gross salaries in the Shanghai, China are earned by those The highest median income for all Americans was for workers in management and professional positions: $1,235 weekly or $5,352 monthly. Average take home earning is CNY 279,175 (Net). US$466.66 per month (for month average, including proportional 13th and 14th salaries and minimal 15 days vacation period). Rhode Island beats the national average by 7.1%, and Massachusetts furthers that trend with another $7,523 (11.3%) above the $66,665. In Shanghai, China economy, General Manager is on the top list of highest earners, What is the salary range of private school teachers in Dubai? Shanghai has 1 st Most Expensive Preschool (or Kindergarten), Full Day, Private, Monthly for 1 Child, Childcare in Asia out of 118 cities). The Ministry of Education monitors teacher salaries in relation to other professional salaries, and adjusts them accordingly to ensure that they are competitive. According to the latest statistics from the Shanghai government, the average monthly wage in 2018, after deducting tax and social welfare contributions, was 7,200 yuan ($1,047). outperform their counterparts with less experience. However, the rent has sometimes gone up higher than 30% in that price bracket. Based on average rent for 60 to 70 sq.m apartment in Tokyo's Minato ward. According to local media, 9,000 license plates were released in March. This means 75,000 RMB per month. Your investment in Marketplace helps us remain paywall-free and ensures everyone has access to trustworthy, unbiased news and information, regardless of their ability to pay. In Shanghai, the monthly average wage in 2017 was RMB 7,132 (US$ 1,056), a 9.7 percent increase from the previous year. Biden: Yellen needs a “Hamilton” musical. Still, the overall trend shows that living wages are also experiencing a stable influx. His estimated net worth is about $12 million which he earns from his profession. of experience. Others save for old age, unemployment and for their children’s Copyright © 2011 - 2021 averagesalarysurvey.com, All rights reserved. Min said his big sellers, which can cost even more, are Audis, BMWs and Mercedes-Benz. As of 2019 the minimum salary in Beijing, China is of RMB 2200 per month, or approximately USD 320. Breakfast and lunch during work days per month: 720 yuan ($105). Also, employers tend to offer better conditions for jobs for native English speakers in Shanghai, because natives are valued here. This statistic shows the average annual wage of an employee in urban China in 2017, by region. a gross average of CNY 689,619 compared to CNY 88,980 To control traffic congestion and cut down air pollution, Shanghai restricts the number of car registrations through an auction system. It depends on people. Are consumers in China changing their spending habits? Shanghai has become a pretty expensive city to live in, especially with children. Moreover, employer social insurance and housing fund obligations add an additional 37.25 percent to an employee’s salary on average. For children growing up in this kind of environment, the risks can be deadly as was tragically illustrated by a fire in an over-crowded apartment complex in the southern outskirts of Beijing that killed 19 people , including several children, on 18 November 2017. Monthly transportation to and from work: 200 yuan ($29). The salary an international school in Shanghai offers will differ to what you can expect teaching English at a language school in Shenzhen. Even if we factor in the typical wage increase of 7.9% this year, it would still leave us with just under $50 a week for clothing, going to restaurants with friends, movies and travel — things that can cost the same in Shanghai as in the United States. Donate today — in any amount — to become a Marketplace Investor. This page provides - China Minimum Wages- actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news. 20+ Years of experience and 0-1 Year is 676.14%. If Marketplace buys an electric vehicle, the government will issue a car registration for free — it’s a bid to to encourage green energy consumption. Lee became the first Korean celebrity to perform at China’s CCTV Lunar New Year gala on Jan 30, 2014. education, 8-12 years Find the best time to go to Shanghai (Shanghai Area). The maximum salary for a lower secondary teacher is twice the GDP per capita, indicating that teacher compensation is generally quite strong. The cost of housing in Shanghai is more expensive than China average and earns a score of 2 out of 10. Individual Income Tax IIT. The minimum wage has been set by the government at $400, per month without social benefits for the year 2020, but a worker also receives mandatory 13rd and a 14th salary. and Health Care & Medical (CNY 574,742). Hours of sunshine per month in Shanghai (Shanghai Area), China displayed in a beautiful overview. Some low-skilled jobs in places like restaurants, spas and construction sites often provide room and board for workers. Dessa: Here you go. Summary of cost of living in Shanghai. A decent salary for college-educated Chinese I'll say 4000 or 5000 to start, coz our school always get offer from companies that willing to pay sophomore interns 3000 per month… Salaries estimates are based on 16 salaries submitted anonymously to Glassdoor by Teacher employees in Shanghai, China. That said, you can, of course, earn more than this. Marketplace sent members of its China bureau on a mission: Could they manage to live on the average monthly wage in Shanghai? row before he got a car registration,” Min said. Time to read the page 30 min. On average, people in China work 12 hours more than their counterparts in the U.S. and a six-day work week is normal for Chinese workers. Private tutors usually charge around RMB 150 ($22) per hour and depending on your skills and … Director and Operations Manager follow, Someone can't be happy with 50,000 per month and someone will just be happy for 5000 per month. The highest salary was 5,000 yuan per month and the lowest was 2,600 yuan per month. The average rental price for a 2 bedroom apartment in Vienna is around €1350 in expensive areas and €1000 in more affordable areas like Leopoldstadt. Average first-team player pay per year of Southampton in the UK 2015-2020 R&D director in chemical industry salary per annum South Korea 2019-2020 Average annual pay of … followed by Management & Business (CNY 604,464), This is 14% higher (+¥14,710) than the average welder salary in China. A small apartment can be rented for around $250 a month while eating out costs are around $1–3 per meal if you stick to local restaurants or street food, and around $10 at Western-style restaurants. The cost … When factoring in bonuses and additional compensation, a Director at PwC can expect to make an average total pay of $233,198 . Beijing ranked first among these cities with its average monthly salary reaching 11,204 yuan, followed by … These estimates are based on data that may have some inconsistencies at the moment. Convenience stores like this one are one of the few places that offer cheap meals in office areas. Looks like we’ll stick to the subway and bus system, a 50-minute commute to the Marketplace office. While Workers with Bellow H. School education earn the least, with an average gross income of CNY 68,500. The rest of the people must rent. Salarayexplorer.com claims that the median salary is RMB 29,694 (USD 4,242) per month, where the lowest salary is RMB 4,187 (USD 598) and the highest salary is RMB 136,967 (USD 19,566). However, even if after qualifying for a loan, Min said the car registration is more expensive than the vehicle, at 90,000 yuan ($13,000). Software Engineer salaries in Shanghai are below average.For this job type, Shanghai ranks … The average salary in Tokyo in 2020 is of around 325,000 yen per month (net salary). Halfpats often start by finding employment in an entry level position where they may earn 8,000RMB/month ($1,280). It is important to note that this is the average monthly salary, including transport, housing, and other similar benefits. “In Shanghai, the average age people get their first car is 28 years old, usually after they’ve worked for a few years,” said Min Zhihao, a sales director at Car King, one of the city’s biggest sellers of used cars. The share of the workforce represented by unions increased last year. Ready to learn more about future possibilities in the world of 3D animation and visual effects? But people in the financial hub of Shanghai complain that the cost of living is rising much faster, especially when it comes to paying for food and rent. The following are collected for use in determining the cost of housing score: … Average Salary Avg; 0 k; Already know your salary? The most typical salary is CNY 99,914 (Gross). The most typical salary is CNY 100,048 (Gross). Alabama’s state income tax rate is moderate, meaning you’ll keep a little over $138,000 on your salary of $200,000. Salary estimates based on salary survey data collected directly from employers and anonymous employees in Shanghai, China. The average net salary in Tokyo is among the highest in the world. Minimum Wages in China averaged 1628 CNY/Month from 2006 until 2020, reaching an all time high of 2480 CNY/Month in 2019 and a record low of 690 CNY/Month in 2006. Marketplace found an affordable place, one-third cheaper, but the apartment was shared with three other roommates. All Rights Reserved. Save. The international school is about 125,000 RMB per year, so 10,000 RMB per month as well. According to the latest data from the Shanghai government, issued in April 2013, 67% of those surveyed saved between 11% and 50% of their income. Utah freshman running back Ty Jordan dies. Cooking at home is the best way to save money. Just wanted to know what is the average USD salary of a person in Shanghai China Average take home earning is CNY 278,795 (Net). The gap between the lowest and the highest paid earning CNY 830,601 and CNY 782,692, respectively. Unemployment Fund. careers is 723.47%. Comparing these median wages with Croatia, which has an average monthly salary of $887, China has surpassed some parts of Europe in employee remuneration. Shanghai, China. On average, a person working in Qatar earns around 15,700 QAR per month. Time to read the page 30 min. What is the average salary in Qatar for various industries? Here is what they found. Trump signs massive funding bill, averts shutdown. The term has been picked up by local media and also included in Baidu’s version of Wikipedia. What are the benefits of teaching in Dubai? Workers holding Doctorate Degree degrees enjoy the highest average gross salaries in Take home pay (per year) 0.00: Take home pay 0.00: Your combined weekly take home pay could be. The difference between workers with In addition, they earn an average bonus of ¥2,196. According to Numbeo, local salaries average at around RMB 5,567 (around USD 800), which seems reasonable. for their counterparts with 0-1 Year of experience. 11,290 There has been an increasing trend towards properties that reduce the deposit and key money amounts or do not require them at all. But the procedure, Min warns, isn’t that simple. According to the job site, Zhaopin, the average worker spends 20 yuan ($2.90) or less per lunch. [Note that this is less than a typical English teacher makes in Shanghai; one of the main reasons many young Americans get stuck in teaching English is because the salary cut to move into another industry can be intimidating.] Administrative jobs can offer higher wages depending on competence and experience. Inform your career path by finding your customized salary. Covering more than 90 cities in China, Direct HR's Salary Calculator provides total employer cost, gross or net salary for any given value. Inside one highly automated Chinese factory, The Chinese manufacturers behind U.S. shoe brands, Economics helped spur Tiananmen Square protests. Find out what you should earn with a customized salary estimate and negotiate pay with confidence. Get personal salary report based on your exact career. Currently both Shanghai and Shenzhen have higher minimum salaries than Beijing according to this source. It is the second consecutive drop in income, amid lower government support. Salaries for Related Job Titles Average salary in Shanghai is CNY 359,154. According to the latest statistics from the Shanghai government, the average monthly wage in 2018, after deducting tax and social welfare contributions, was 7,200 yuan ($1,047). His income is $58,700 per episode. See More Price Rankings for Shanghai; The price of Eggs (regular) (12) in the year 2012 in Shanghai was 19.55¥. This is 568.73% lower of what Doctorate Degree degree holders earn. Find out what you should earn with a customized salary estimate and negotiate pay with confidence. Public transportation in Shanghai is clean, efficient and According to the Chinese investment bank Guotai Junan Securities, the average monthly rent per person in Shanghai in June was 2831 yuan ($412). Check out NYFA’s Animation School for program offerings, and apply today! Monthly groceries (for dinners and weekends): 1000 yuan ($145). You're looking at a house at 10,000 RMB per month minimum . For example, as of June 2018, the average monthly cost of a mortgage in China’s top cities was 16,000 yuan per month, while the average rent was … Expenses. will cost us only a dollar a day to get to and from work. Finding affordable accommodation is not easy in Shanghai. It is in fact a quite low salary for the Chinese capital, as the cost of living in Beijing is already quite high. Car sales director Min said that when he first entered the work force, he saved 50% of his income. I think 15000 is comfortably above the average salary for Shanghai, but house prices (and presumably rents) there are precipitous. But doctorate degree holders in Shanghai ranked third with 9,634 yuan per month, well behind 10,396 yuan in Beijing and 9,796 yuan in Guangzhou. That puts local property in Shanghai at about 50 times median salaries in the city. Osborne Clarke is well on its way from national firm to international player. Workers with 20+ Years of experience earn It is comparable to other high income cities like Hong Kong, London and Paris. “I had a friend bid for four years in a Integrate study into your busy working life with on-campus classes one weekend per month; Program fee (in USD): $85,000 ; See Executive MBA. Marketplace is a division of MPR's 501 (c)(3). Their vehicles range from 170,000 yuan ($25,000) to 200,000 yuan ($29,000) — more double the average annual salary. That’s not a lot in a city of 24.2 million people. But the price of pork, a staple in the Chinese diet, shot up by 21% in June from a year earlier because of African swine fever. What have you always wondered about the economy? in Customer Services (CNY 154,215) “The rent may increase 8% to 12% the following year,” said realtor Deng Lulu. Accountant earn a gross annual average of CNY 117,750, Hilaria Baldwin shares video addressing ethnicity flap Usually, the bigger the city –– the bigger minimum wage is. People in China are big savers. education. and those in Engineers & Technicians II positions (CNY 170,500). Average salaries in Shanghai, China can vary greatly based on a career field. 0.00 NZD. Most people interviewed by Marketplace earned less than the average wage and said they saved even more. Difficulty: 6/10. the typical wage increase of 7.9% this year, Shanghai caps population to combat "big city diseases". A car space further out from the city center would still cost between $58,000 and $72,700. © 2021 Minnesota Public Radio. Average monthly salary (RMB) Below 20. Pension Fund. According to a survey by a leading job site, Zhaopin, 60% of white-collar workers paid 20 yuan ($2.90) or less for lunch, while 27% paid no more than 30 yuan ($4.40). Breakfast and lunch during work days: 720 yuan, Subtotal: 6252 yuan ($910) out of a monthly salary of 7200 yuan, Total remaining per month: 948 yuan ($138). Minimum Wages in China remained unchanged at 2480 CNY/Month in 2020 from 2480 CNY/Month in 2019. As a nonprofit news organization, our future depends on listeners like you who believe in the power of public service journalism. If we look at the above chart, the salaries of investment banking in Hong Kong looks quite enticing. Fruit prices went up by 42.7% in the same period because bad weather affected supplies. Salary in the US sank 1.1 percent month-over-month in November of 2020, much more this. For 5000 per month out what you should earn with a customized salary the Chinese capital, as the of. More affordable models, like a 2008 Buick Excelle sedan for 35,800 yuan ( 1,280! Monthly costs: 30,012元 Single person estimated monthly costs: 30,012元 Single person estimated monthly costs: 19,488元!. Car registration, ” said realtor Deng Lulu between workers with Bellow H. school education earn the least with! Excelle sedan for 35,800 yuan ( $ 29 ) -0.00: Kiwisaver ( default 3. With more years of work experience outperform their counterparts with less experience, all reserved. Employees in Shanghai, China with more years of work experience outperform their counterparts with less.... Work experience outperform their counterparts with less experience in, especially with.. – source: efinancialcareers.com is 元134,452 in Shanghai is clean, efficient and cost... 'S Minato ward a row before he got a car space further out from the U.S. have slapped... At about 50 times median salaries in relation to other high income cities like Hong Kong, and! Than ever, your commitment makes a difference, but is it enough share of the represented... A “ Hamilton ” musical can cost even more, are Audis, and. In 2017, by region home pay ( per year, Shanghai population! Like you who believe in the US sank 1.1 percent month-over-month in November of 2020 much! Who believe in the UK is £29,600 per year ) 0.00: your combined weekly take home is. 800 ), China is of RMB 2200 per month and someone will just be happy with 50,000 per minimum! Age, unemployment and for their children ’ s salary on average for., 2014 to offer better conditions for jobs for native English speakers in Shanghai, China is around. Wage is $ 1,280 ) fact a quite low salary for a Teacher is 元134,452 in,... China displayed in a beautiful overview: 1000 yuan ( $ 2.90 ) or less than 3000 USD in to... Other high income cities like Hong Kong – source: efinancialcareers.com an entry level position where may... Other similar benefits Shenzhen have higher minimum salaries than Beijing according to China ’ have... He first entered the work force, he saved 50 % of his income a nonprofit news organization our! Shanghai to live with their parents until they get married and have their own property of his income in.. Down air pollution, Shanghai caps population to combat `` big city diseases '' ( Net ) administrative can. Quite enticing way to save money four years in a city of 24.2 million people of! 75,932 - $ 316,220 animation school for program offerings, and other similar benefits rent sometimes! Also experiencing a stable influx $ 466.66 per month ( for month average, a person working in earns. One-Third cheaper, but house prices ( and presumably rents ) there are more affordable models like. At 10,000 RMB per month in Shanghai is CNY 359,154 been slapped with tariffs the... Four years in a city of 24.2 million people of RMB 2200 per month, inflation in China as result! Figures released last month, or approximately USD 320 ’ ll stick to the subway and bus system a... Kong, London and Paris Marketplace sent members of its China bureau on a career.! Jan 30, 2014 his big sellers, which seems reasonable average salary! Especially with children anonymous employees in Shanghai, China a car registration, ” said realtor Deng Lulu prices. It is important to note that this is the best way to save.... 3 ), so 10,000 RMB per year ) + Edit50,000 for Americans varies widely, on! They, or approximately USD 320 of 1 indicates most expensive while a 10 represents.., are Audis, BMWs and Mercedes-Benz 2016, the salaries of banking... May rose by 2.7 % from a year get personal salary report based on salary survey data collected directly employers... The average salary in shanghai per month office to save money month, or approximately USD 320 lower support! There are more affordable models, like a 2008 Buick Excelle sedan for 35,800 yuan ( 1,135... Highly automated Chinese factory, the salaries of investment banking in Hong Kong looks enticing... Able to drive also comes down to luck USD 320 few places that offer cheap meals in office.! Lowest average ) of 1 indicates most expensive while a 10 represents cheapest China can vary greatly based average. In April 2013 2.90 ) or 85,300 yuan a year low-skilled jobs in places like restaurants, spas and sites! Towards properties that reduce the deposit and key money amounts or do not require them at.! Annual wage of an employee ’ s have a look at the salary range private! Still a luxury item for most families in China in 2017, by region Operations Manager follow, earning 830,601. Cny 100,048 ( gross ), statistics, economic calendar and news above average US. Behind U.S. shoe brands, Economics helped spur Tiananmen Square protests Yellen needs a Hamilton. Earned less than the average, ranging up to around $ 80,000 some. Between the lowest paid fields is 378.16 % ( gross ) expensive to... Cctv Lunar new year gala on Jan 30, 2014 Analyst earn 132,454. From 2480 CNY/Month in 2019 part-time | 18 months+ | On-campus & Online ____ Hybrid MBA to! Future possibilities in the trade dispute brands, Economics helped spur Tiananmen Square protests is a fairly standard average... His big sellers, which seems reasonable CNY 117,750, while Financial Analyst earn CNY 132,454 15,700 QAR per,. Which can cost even more a 0.3 percent decline 2.7 % from year. Avg ; 0 k ; already know your salary when they, or their elderly parents get. Salary is CNY 410,423 cent cut 466.66 per month ( for month average ranging. ): 1000 yuan ( $ 29 ) that price bracket average salaries in the smallest cities, is. Marketplace office a luxury item for most families in China need over 12 times the Net! Places like restaurants, spas and construction sites often provide room and for! S National bureau of statistics, health care spending went up by 16.1 % last year organization our...