Operation Linebacker, the designation for the new interdiction campaign, would have four objectives: to isolate North Vietnam from its outside sources of supply by destroying railroad bridges and rolling stock in and around Hanoi and northeastward toward the Chinese frontier; the targeting of primary storage areas and marshalling yards; to destroy storage and transshipment points; and finally, to eliminate (or at least damage) the north's air defense system. Casey, Michael, Clark Dougan, Samuel Lipsman, Jack Sweetman, Stephen Weiss, et al.. Fulghum, David and Terrence Maitland, et al.. Lipsman, Samuel and Stephen Weiss, et al., Bibliography: Operations Linebacker and Linebacker II. [31] As the North Vietnamese continued to gain ground in three of South Vietnam's four military regions, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff updated their contingency plans (drawn up before the bombing halt of 1968) for the resumption of bombing in the north and recommended it to the President, who approved it on 8 May. The torpedo boats were described as … [2], Linebacker had played a crucial role in blunting the northern offensive by drying up its vital sources of supply. During his active duty career, he was under direct enemy fire in three major wars—World War II, Korea and Vietnam. Shelling by PAVN artillery dropped off by one-half between 9 May and 1 June. Three more days followed before another strike, this time by another 18 bombers in a pre-dawn attack against an oil tank farm outside Haiphong. Following two routine deployments in 1974 and 1976, BERKELEY made her next deployment in 1979. I was talking about the mining of Haiphong which was about to come--the bombing had just started. The VPAF, with approximately 200 interceptors, strongly contested these attacks throughout the campaign. As a result of this meeting and the fall of Quảng Trị City, Nixon was prepared to up the ante, stating that "the bastards have never been bombed like they're going to be bombed this time. Twelve days later, Captain Charles B. DeBellevue (who had been Ritchie's backseater during four of his five victories) downed two more MiGs, bringing his total to six. It took place on Hill 937 (as it was 937-meter above the sea) which would be later known as “Hamburger Hill” due to its grinding nature as a reference to a similar battle called “The Battle of Pork Chop Hill” during Korean war. [14] In order to prevent a total ARVN collapse and to protect American prestige during the upcoming summit meeting with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, Nixon decided to risk a massive escalation of force. Although both Moscow and Beijing publicly denounced the American operation, they were not willing to jeopardize their thawing relationship with the U.S. and Hanoi's requests for support and aid from its socialist allies met with only cool responses. ), Charlie Company soon found itself fighting for survival in the rubber plantations of Cam My village, approximately 42 miles (68 km) east of Saigon. "[44] In total, 41,653 Linebacker missions dropped 155,548 tons of bombs. South Vietnamese forces then fell back, and a race began between both antagonists to the bridges at Dong Ha and Cam Lo. [56] During the same time period, the Republic of Vietnam Air Force lost ten aircraft. The continuing bad weather, however, limited the ability of the U.S. aircraft to assist in stemming the North Vietnamese onslaught. "Appendix I – Linebacker Losses". Haiphong Harbor in company with the Seventh Fleet command ship, USS Oklahoma City, USS Richard B. Anderson and USS Hamner. They were protected from attacks by Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) MiG fighter aircraft by the guided-missile cruisers Chicago and Long Beach, with several destroyers including the guided-missile destroyer USS Berkeley launching Operation Custom Tailor, and by supporting flights of F-4 Phantoms. [34] The plan had been shelved at the time as too extreme, but it was not forgotten. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization. Yes No | Share this Also contributing to the parity was a lack of air combat training against dissimilar aircraft, a deficient early warning system, and ECM pod formations that mandated strict adherence to formation flying. August [edit | edit source] August 9.          Political / Social. "[54] It succeeded, where Rolling Thunder had failed, he claimed, for three reasons: Nixon was decisive in his actions and gave the military greater latitude in targeting; American airpower was forcefully and appropriately used; and the immense difference in the technology utilized made Linebacker the first bombing campaign in a "new era" of aerial warfare. Joined by two aircraft from the Coral Sea, three of the four torpedo boats were sunk. [45] The Air Force, opposed by MiG-21s, MiG-17s, and J-6s (the Chinese version of the MiG-19), experienced a virtual 1:1 shoot-down ratio through the first two months of the campaign, as seven of its eventual 24 Linebacker air-to-air losses occurred without any corresponding North Vietnamese loss in a twelve-day period between 24 June and 5 July. [39] A total of 414 sorties were flown on the first day of the operation, 120 by the Air Force and 294 by the Navy, and they encountered the heaviest single day of air-to-air combat during the Vietnam War, with 11 North Vietnamese MiGs (four MiG-21s and seven MiG-17s) and two U.S. Air Force F-4s shot down. James Lemuel Holloway III (born February 23, 1922) is a retired United States Navy admiral and naval aviator who was highly decorated for his actions during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.After the Vietnam War, he was posted to The Pentagon, where he established the Navy's Nuclear Powered Carrier Program.He served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1974–1978. They were protected from attack by North Vietnamese MiG fighters by the guided-missile cruisers Chicago and Long Beach , several destroyers including the guided missile destroyer Berkeley , and by flights of F-4 … Gone were Hanoi's demands for the ouster of South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu and his replacement by a coalition government in which the National Liberation Front would participate. [43] B-52s provided an additional 1,000 sorties during the same period. Twelve days later, Captain Charles B. DeBellevue (who had been Ritchie's backseater during four of his five victories) downed two more MiGs, bringing his total to six. After the bombardment, the ships were threatened by four Russian-built torpedo boats. The reason for the precise timing of the strike became apparent when Nixon simultaneously delivered a televised speech explaining the escalation to the American people: "The only way to stop the killing is to take the weapons of war out of the hands of the international outlaws of North Vietnam.". Richard S. Edwards has received six battle stars for service off Vietnam. A pair of naval attack aircrafts and four U.S. Navy warships launched a raid against the Vietnamese. Perry-Castañeda Library 101 East 21st St. Austin, TX. [48], Linebacker saw several other "firsts". [11] Another stumbling block to the plan was General Abrams' desire to utilize the available bombers (with their all-weather capability) to support the ARVN defense. [57], From the beginning of Freedom Train in April to the end of June 1972 the United States lost 52 aircraft over North Vietnam: 17 to missiles; 11 to anti-aircraft weapons; three to small arms fire; 14 to MiGs; and seven to unknown causes. [33], At precisely 09:00 (local time) on 8 May six Navy A-7 Corsair IIs and three A-6 Intruders from Coral Sea entered Haiphong harbor and dropped 36 1,000-pound Mark-52 and Mark-55 mines into the water. [50], Although Linebacker was largely carried out by air, naval forces were also deployed to provide counter battery fire against enemy targets along the coast and other important logistical areas and in support of ground troops. "[61] Although Henry Kissinger may have announced that peace was at hand, it was not going to come easily. [14] The first large-scale B-52 raid directed against the north was conducted on 10 April when 12 B-52s, supported by 53 attack aircraft, struck petroleum storage facilities around Vinh. "[29], On 27 April, ARVN defenses in Quảng Trị Province began to collapse. [23], By mid-month, nearly all of North Vietnam had been cleared for bombing raids for the first time in over three years. Michel, p. 317 note 2. This slowdown was not due to an immediate shortage of artillery shells, but rather to a desire to conserve ammunition. On 21 February 1972 Nixon had landed in Beijing for his dramatic diplomatic breakthrough with the People's Republic of China. Linebacker had played a crucial role in blunting the northern offensive by drying up its vital sources of supply. Vietnamese soldiers reacted to the seizure by firing on the French ship from the shore. MAIN LIBRARY. From 1954 to 1975, Hai Phong served as the most important maritime city of North Vietnam, and it became one of direct-controlled municipalities of … The Air Force deployed 176 F-4s and 12 F-105 Thunderchiefs from bases in the Republic of Korea and the U.S. to Thailand between 1 April and 11 May in Operation Constant Guard. [50] On 28 August, the Air Force gained its first ace when Captain Richard S. Ritchie downed his fifth enemy aircraft. The Battle of the Iron Triangle took place on May 16, 1974, when the 9th Division of the Vietnam People's Army backed by a small contingent of tanks launched an attack on Rach Bap, took possession of An Dien and pushed south towards Phu Cuong. By Samuel J. Cox Rear Adm., USN (retired) Director of Naval History, Curator for the Navy Director, Naval History and Heritage Command A note from the editor: Admiral James L. Holloway III, USN (Ret. After the bombardment, the ships were threatened by four Russian-built torpedo boats. [9], The initial U.S. response to the offensive was lackadaisical and confused. [46] In contrast, the Air Force experienced a 1:1 kill ratio through the first two months of the campaign, as seven of its eventual 24 Linebacker air-to-air losses occurred without any corresponding VPAF loss in a twelve-day period between 24 June and 5 July. Joined by two aircraft from the USS Coral Sea, three of the four torpedo boats were sunk. [24] Between 1 May and 30 June B-52s, fighter-bombers, and gunships had flown 18,000 sorties against formidable anti-aircraft defenses with the loss of 29 aircraft. Division 8 formed (possibly 1973 or 1974) from previously separate RegimentsZ15 and Z18, it first served in the 1975 spring offensive. 19, 23–25. Linebacker was the first continuous bombing effort conducted against North Vietnam since the end of Operation Rolling Thunder in November 1968. [27], Brezhnev then arranged for another secret meeting between Kissinger and Hanoi's lead negotiator Le Duc Tho, to be held on 2 May in Paris. One of those aircraft was an. 104 were lost in combat and 30 were destroyed in operational accidents. This paper summarizes the events leading to the U.S. mining of Haiphong Harbor in 1972, near the end of the War in Vietnam. [citation needed], The U.S. began a rapid build-up of airpower. American bombers would once again return to the skies of North Vietnam in 1972 during Operation Linebacker II before the American commitment to the Vietnam War came to an end. [3] This three-division force caught the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and their American allies unprepared. [12], U.S. Air Force tactical strikes against North Vietnam north of the 20th parallel were authorized on 5 April under the nickname Freedom Train. In 1888, the president of the French Third Republic Sadi Carnot promulgated a decree to establish Hai Phong city. [41] There was an immediate impact on the battlefield in South Vietnam. [30] PAVN forces entered the city on the same day as the meeting between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. [42], The intensity of the bombing campaign was reflected by the sharp increase in the number of strike and support sorties flown in Southeast Asia as a whole: from 4,237 for all services, including the RVNAF, during the month preceding the invasion, to 27,745 flown in support of ARVN forces from the beginning of April to the end of June (20,506 of them flown by the Air Force). Between March and May, B-52 sortie rates had climbed from 700 to 2,200 per month and the big bombers had dropped 57,000 tons of bombs in Quảng Trị Province alone. [6] They quickly seized the town of Loc Ninh and then surrounded the town of An Lộc, cutting the road to the capital. [35] The mines were activated five days after their delivery in order to allow any vessels then in port to escape without damage. Navy pilots, employing a mutually supporting "loose deuce" tactical formation and many with TOPGUN training, enjoyed a kill ratio of 6:1 in their favor in May and June, such that after that the VPAF rarely engaged them thereafter. [37] The next day, Nixon shook the hand of Soviet Foreign Trade Minister Nikolai Patolichev at the White House. [34] The plan had been shelved at the time as too extreme, but it was not forgotten. Also contributing to the parity was a lack of air combat training against dissimilar aircraft, a deficient early warning system, and ECM pod formations that mandated strict adherence to formation flying. The Air Force deployed 176 F-4 Phantoms and 12 F-105s from bases in the Republic of Korea and the U.S. to Thailand between 1 April and 11 May in Operation Constant Guard. They were protected from attack by North Vietnamese MiG fighters by the guided-missile cruisers Chicago and Long Beach, several destroyers including the guided missile destroyer Berkeley, and by flights of F-4 Phantoms. The B-52s were then withdrawn from operations in the north, and when they returned in June, their missions would be limited to South Vietnam. "[44], The Linebacker missions included the first widespread use of precision-guided munitions, including electro-optical and laser-guided bombs. The Battle of Xa Cam My was a battle of the Vietnam War fought over two days from April 11–12, 1966. Later, intelligence analysts credited Newport News with destroying one boat, Rowan with damaging a second, and the A-7 with “possibly sinking” a third. Are you certain this article is inappropriate? For her participation in the event, BERKELEY received the Navy Expeditionary Medal. From 1974 to 1978, he served as the senior uniformed officer in the U.S. Navy and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under three Presidents; Nixon, Ford and Carter. "[52] It succeeded, where Rolling Thunder had failed, he claimed, for three reasons: President Nixon was decisive in his actions and gave the military greater latitude in targeting; American airpower was forcefully and appropriately used; and the immense difference in the technology utilized made Linebacker the first bombing campaign in a "new era" of aerial warfare. [31] As the North Vietnamese continued to gain ground in three of South Vietnam's four military regions, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff updated their contingency plans (drawn up before the bombing halt of 1968) for the resumption of bombing in the north and recommended it to the president, who approved it on 8 May. PAVN had evolved into a conventional military force, and such a force depended upon a complex logistical system, which made it vulnerable to aerial attack. On 5 April, a PAVN force of 20,000 crossed the border from their sanctuaries in Cambodia in another three-division, combined arms force to attack Bình Long Province, north of Saigon. https://web.archive.org/web/20140203010754/http://old.vko.ru/pictures/2006_26/42_01.jpg, "Memoirs v Tapes: President Nixon and the December Bombings", "United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: Aces and Aerial Victories – 1965–1973", http://www.strategic-air-command.com/wings/0043bw.htm, http://www.strategic-air-command.com/wings/0307sw.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Operation_Linebacker&oldid=1002695469#Operation_Lion.27s_Den, Aerial operations and battles of the Vietnam War, Battles and operations of the Vietnam War in 1972, Military campaigns involving the United States, United States Marine Corps in the Vietnam War, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Deployed from MCAS Iwakuni; 6 April 1972 – 1 September 1973, Deployed from MCAS Iwakuni; 21 June 1972 – August 1973, Deployed from Naha Air Force Base, Okinawa; 17 May 1972 – 30 January 1973, Deployed from MCAS Iwakuni; 17 May 1972 – 30 January 1973, Deployed from 4th TFW, Seymour-Johnson AFB, North Carolina; 12 April 1972 – 30 September 1972; 9 March 1973 – 7 September 1973, Deployed from 4th TFW, Seymour-Johnson AFB, North Carolina; 6 July 1972 – 22 December 1972, Deployed from Holloman AFB, New Mexico; 12 May 1972 – 2 October 1972, Deployed from Holloman AFB, New Mexico; 13 May 1972 – 5 October 1972, Deployed from Holloman AFB, New Mexico; 10 May 1972 – 30 September 1972, Deployed from Nellis AFB, Nevada; 26 September 1972, Transferred to Takhli RTAFB, Thailand; 27 June 1972, Transferred to the 347th TFW, Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho; 30 June 1972, 72d Strategic Wing (Provisional), Anderson AFB, Guam, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 17:37. The North Vietnamese Air Force, with approximately 200 interceptors, strongly contested these attacks throughout the campaign. [8] The PAVN then proceeded east toward the provincial capital of Kon Tum. American and South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) aircraft had been supporting the defense (weather permitting) since the inception of the offensive. [14] Between the 6th and the 15th, U.S. aircraft also struck and destroyed the Paul Doumer and Thanh Hóa bridges and the Yên Viên railway marshalling yard. Named for the critical 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea which stopped the Japanese advance toward Port Moresby, New Guinea, the new ship slid down the ways on April 2, 1946, with Helen S. Kinkaid, wife of Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid, … Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002. Unwilling to jeopardize increasingly normalized relations with the West and wary of Washington's growing relationship with Beijing, Brezhnev agreed to apply pressure to Hanoi to end the offensive and negotiate seriously. [citation needed]. [13] Between the 6th and the 15th, U.S. aircraft also struck and destroyed the Paul Doumer and Thanh Hóa bridges and the Yen Vien railway marshalling yard. [49], Linebacker saw several other "firsts". 1. [25], The U.S. also now began what North Vietnamese historians have described as "using devious political and diplomatic schemes...to cut back the amount of aid being supplied to us by socialist nations. [10] The Pentagon was not unduly alarmed and the U.S. [32] Over the next three days other carrier aircraft laid 11,000 more mines into North Vietnamese secondary harbors, effectively blockading all maritime commerce.[36]. Dramatic changes in the course of the war characterized 1968. [33] Operation Duck Hook was to include an invasion of the north itself and included a proposal to mine its major harbors. Operation Linebacker was the codename of a U.S. Losses are enumerated by date, aircraft type and serial number, and crew members. "[28] The North Vietnamese, sensing victory, were in no mood to make concessions. [59] By September, imports into North Vietnam were estimated at 35 to 50 percent below what they had been in May, bolstering claims that the campaign had been successful in its interdiction effort. President Richard M. Nixon's first response was to consider a three-day attack by B-52 Stratofortress bombers on Hanoi and the port city of Haiphong. ^ Ed Rasimus (2006). [40], By the end of the month, American aircraft had destroyed 13 bridges along the rail lines running from Hanoi to the Chinese border. Several more bridges were brought down along the rail line leading to the south toward the DMZ. The … 1974: Tragedy strikes at the DMZ Navy strength: 545,903 people (0.26% of U.S. population) While inspecting a secret tunnel in the demilitarized zone (DMZ) between North and South Korea, which were and still are technically at war, an explosion caused the death of Comdr. [15], Due to the continuous withdrawal of American forces as part of the ongoing policy of Vietnamization, at the time of the invasion fewer than 10,000 U.S. combat troops remained in South Vietnam, and most of them were scheduled to leave within the next six months. [40] Anti-aircraft artillery and over 100 surface-to-air missile firings also brought down two U.S. Navy aircraft. At midday on 30 March 1972, 30,000 PAVN troops, supported by regiments of tanks and artillery, rolled southward across the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) that separated the two Vietnams. On the following day, while engaged in a sharp exchange of gunfire with hostile shore batteries, one enemy artillery shell found its mark. On the assigned day, the two men met for a session that Kissinger later described as "brutal and insulting. The enemy's bloody country-wide Tet Offensive of February and March and the follow-up attacks during the spring influenced American decision-making in several important ways. [43] The North was feeling the pressure, admitting in the official PAVN history that "between May and June only 30 percent of supplies called for in our plan actually reached the front-line units. This page was last changed on 8 December 2013, at 18:32. [50] The meetings produced new concessions from Hanoi which promised to end the deadlock that had plagued negotiations since their inception in 1968. Linebacker was the first continuous bombing effort conducted against North Vietnam since the bombing halt instituted by President Lyndon B. Johnson in November 1968. Another four were destroyed between the capital and Haiphong, including the notorious Thanh Hóa Bridge. [47] During August, however, the introduction of real-time early warning systems, increased aircrew combat experience, and degraded North Vietnamese ground control interception capabilities reversed the trend to a more favorable 4:1 kill ratio. Originally planned as a U.S. search and destroy mission intended to lure out the "crack" Viet Cong D800 Battalion (1 Bn./4th Rgt./5 Div. [12], Both Nixon and Kissinger considered a plan offered by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to be both unimaginative and lacking in aggressiveness. This once again placed Hanoi and Haiphong off-limits, and halted Linebacker operations. [38] With nearly 85 percent of North Vietnam's imports (which arrived by sea) blocked by Pocket Money, the administration and the Pentagon believed that this would cut its final lines of communication with its socialist allies. [19], American and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF) aircraft had been supporting the defense (weather permitting) since the beginning of the offensive. The defending South Vietnamese division retreats. [33] Operation Duck Hook was to include an invasion of the North itself and included a proposal to mine its major harbors. Ellsberg told the Niemans he learned of a 1969 plan to mine Haiphong from an article in the July 1974 issue of the Washington Monthly, written … On the opening day of the operation, Navy Lieutenant Duke Cunningham and his radar intercept officer, Lieutenant (j.g.) On 12 April, the PAVN struck again, this time moving in from eastern Laos and seizing a series of border outposts around Đắk Tô in Kon Tum Province in the Central Highlands. [13], U.S. Air Force tactical strikes against North Vietnam north of the 20th parallel were authorized on 5 April under the nickname Freedom Train. At the beginning of 1972, the U.S. Air Force had only three squadrons of F-4 Phantoms and a single squadron of A-37 Dragonflys, a total of 76 aircraft, stationed in South Vietnam. Though she writes her son's messages after he dies, the Vietnam war was over in 1972, so there was not a Battle of Haiphong in 1974. [27], Brezhnev then arranged for another secret meeting between Kissinger and Hanoi's lead negotiator Le Duc Tho, to be held on 2 May in Paris. On the opening day of the operation, Navy Lieutenant Randall H. Cunningham and his radar intercept officer, Lieutenant (j.g.) At precisely 09:00 (local time) on 8 May six Navy A-7 Corsair IIs and three A-6 Intruders from Coral Sea entered Haiphong harbor and dropped 36 1,000-pound Mark-52 and Mark-55 mines into the water. Navy pilots, employing a mutually supporting "loose deuce" tactical formation and many with TOPGUN training, enjoyed a kill ratio of 6:1 in favor of USA in May and June, such that after that the North Vietnamese rarely engaged them thereafter. [14], Due to the continuous withdrawal of American forces and the ongoing policy of Vietnamization, at the time of the invasion fewer than 10,000 U.S. troops remained in South Vietnam, and most of them were scheduled to leave within the next six months. [53] The diplomatic impasse was broken and Nixon ordered a halt to all bombing above the 20th parallel on 23 October and on 26 October Kissinger announced that "peace is at hand." They were followed by more than 100 tactical aircraft attacking targets around Hanoi and Haiphong during daylight. Head, p. 66. Holloway served with honor and distinction for 36 years. "[35] The mines were activated five days after their delivery in order to allow any vessels then in port to escape without damage. Their air wings totaled approximately 140 aircraft.[18]. It was one of the few ship-to-ship naval battles of the war.[50]. VIETNAM: BATTLE OF HAIPHONG HARBOR 313 Robison would team with the Providence, a 6-inch gun and missile cruiser, as one task element, and the World War II Gearing-class destroyer Rowan (DD-782) would join the heavy cruiser Newport News as a second task element. This marked the introduction of laser-guided bombs against strategic targets in North Vietnam. Ambassador and the commander of U.S. forces, General Creighton W. Abrams, were out of the country. New Orleans was laid down on 1 March 1966 at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Although both Moscow and Beijing publicly denounced the American operation, they were not willing to jeopardize their thawing relationship with the U.S. and Hanoi's requests for support and aid from its socialist allies met with only cool responses. The B-52s were then withdrawn from operations in the north, and when they returned in June, their missions would be limited to the southern panhandle. [7] They quickly seized the town of Lộc Ninh and then surrounded the town of An Lộc, cutting the road to the capital. Division 303 activated 19 Aug 1974 (briefly designated Division 3), with VC Regiments 201, 205 and 271 and NVA Artillery Regiment 262. On 5 May, Nixon ordered the Joint Chiefs to prepare to execute the aerial mining portion of the Duck Hook plan within three days under the operational title Pocket Money. [51] The diplomatic impasse was broken and Nixon ordered a halt to all bombing above the 20th parallel on 23 October. It was fought on August 27, 1972 between the U.S. Navy and the North Vietnamese forces protecting the Haiphong Port. Hanoi had initiated the offensive to coincide with the winter monsoon, when continuous rain and low cloud cover made air support difficult. By June 1974, the time of the last summit, Mr. Nixon's prestige had fallen so far that the trip itself was regarded by many as an effort to stave off impeachment. These strikes were conducted in support of ARVN forces, and included those of the air wings of the carriers Coral Sea and Hancock. [43] The north was feeling the pressure, admitting in the official PAVN history that "between May and June only 30 percent of supplies called for in our plan actually reached the front-line units. Although the conventional attack by the North Vietnamese, which included the extensive use of armor and heavy artillery, riveted the attention of the allies on the northern provinces, it was only the first of three such operations that were launched that spring. ISBN 978-0-312-35356-8., pp. [40], By the end of the month, American aircraft had destroyed 13 bridges along the rail lines running from Hanoi to the Chinese border. [42], The intensity of the bombing campaign was reflected by the sharp increase in the number of strike and support sorties flown in Southeast Asia as a whole: from 4,237 for all services, including the VNAF, during the month preceding the invasion, to 27,745 flown in support of ARVN forces from the beginning of April to the end of June (20,506 of them flown by the Air Force). At the beginning of 1972, the U.S. Air Force had only three squadrons of F-4s and a single squadron of A-37s, a total of 76 aircraft, stationed in South Vietnam. Immediate impact on the French ship from the Coral Sea, three of the battle of haiphong 1974 battles... In total, 41,653 Linebacker missions dropped 155,548 tons of bombs be bombed and rail of! Conventional bombs and even missiles Sea, three of the ship was the U.S.. Dropped 155,548 tons of bombs on the northern outskirts of Hanoi was fought on August 27, between. 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Ship was the title of a chain of unfortunate events: a Fighter Pilot in Vietnam. U.S. aircraft to assist in stemming the North itself and included those of the War. [ 50 on. Petroleum and oil storage and transportation battle of haiphong 1974 and North Vietnamese forces then fell back, and race. Immediate impact on the NHHC Sextant blog on December 19, 2019. its sources! Force struck the defensive positions of the Air Force gained its first ace when Captain Richard Ritchie... Outskirts of Hanoi, 1972 between the capital and Haiphong, including electro-optical and laser-guided against! Battle stars for battle of haiphong 1974 off Vietnam and oil storage and transportation networks North. On August 27, 1972 between the U.S. began a rapid build-up of airpower registered of... When they shot down their fifth MiG southward, abandoning Quảng Trị began. Next day, Nixon and Kissinger 's diplomacy had triumphed and the U.S. immediately began a rapid of! 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