[372] According to Paul Schaffel the influential Hindu nationalist V.D. [228] Vivekananda states, "when we sum up its esoteric significance, it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil". [240] Some of the ideas in the Bhagavad Gita connect it to the Shatapatha Brahmana of Yajurveda. During the independence movement in India, Hindus considered active "burning and drowning of British goods" while technically illegal under colonial legislation, were viewed as a moral and just war for the sake of liberty and righteous values of the type Gita discusses. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel. For example, states Arthur Basham, verses 5.23–28 state that a sage's spiritual goal is to realize the impersonal Brahman, yet the next verse 5.29 states that the goal is to realize the personal God who is Krishna.[38]. [245], In 1981, Larson stated that "a complete listing of Gita translations and a related secondary bibliography would be nearly endless". [264] Swami Rambhadracharya released the first Braille version of the scripture, with the original Sanskrit text and a Hindi commentary, on 30 November 2007. Bhagavad Gita Slokas - Popular Slokas from the Bhagavad Gita with English Meaning. It is considered to be the primary holy scripture for Hinduism, the world's third largest religion. [138] He equates himself to being the father and the mother of the universe, to being the Om, to the three Vedas, to the seed, the goal of life, the refuge and abode of all. For Vivekananda, the Gita was an egalitarian scripture that rejected caste and other hierarchies because of its verses such as 13.27—28, which states "He who sees the Supreme Lord dwelling equally in all beings, the Imperishable in things that perish, he sees verily. The actual dates of composition of the Gita remain unresolved. [83] According to Winthrop Sargeant, the text acknowledges that some individuals are more reflective and intellectual, some affective and engaged by their emotions, some are action driven, yet others favor experimenting and exploring what works. Yoga is invigoration in relaxation. [229], Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, in his commentary on the Gita,[230] interprets the battle as "an allegory in which the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, man's higher impulses struggling against evil". [46] Such an era emerged after the rise of Buddhism and Jainism in the 5th century BCE, and particularly after the semi-legendary life of Ashoka in 3rd century BCE. He describes the difference between transient perishable physical body (kshetra) and the immutable eternal soul (kshetrajna). In 1966, Mahārishi Mahesh Yogi published a partial translation. [18][112][113] Arjuna, after listening to Krishna's spiritual teachings in Chapter 2, gets more confounded and returns to the predicament he faces. The Bhagavad Gita is a dialogue between Arjuna, a … New Delhi: Penguin Random House. NEXT PAGE: वह था 50+ Great Sanskrit Quotes On Life. Great Minds on India. B. van Buitenen too states that the Gita was likely composed about 200 BCE. (11.05), See the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the Ashvins, and the Maruts. According to the Indologist Ananya Vajpeyi, the Gita does not elaborate on the means or stages of war, nor on ahimsa, except for stating that "ahimsa is virtuous and characterizes an awakened, steadfast, ethical man" in verses such as 13.7–10 and 16.1–5. "[156], Some translators title the chapter as Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga yoga, The Separateness of the Divine and Undivine, Two Paths, or The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demonic. To help Arjuna believe this, he reveals to him his divine form which is described as timeless and leaves Arjuna shaking with awe and fear. Mark Cubbon. Accordingly, the title has been interpreted as "the word of God" by the theistic schools,[17] "the words of the Lord",[18] "the Divine Song",[19][20] and "Celestial Song" by others. Verily, wisdom (born from yoga practice) is superior to (mechanical) yoga practice; meditation is more desirable than the possession of (theoretical) wisdom; the relinquishment of the fruits of action is better than (the initial states of) meditation. Theirs is true renunciation. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the. tags: bhagavad-gita, stephen-mitchell. Never share these truths with one who is without self-control or devotion, nor with one who won't share with others in a spirit of service, nor give them to one who is indifferent to them, or who finds fault with Me. [18][112][113] Krishna reveals his divine being in greater detail, as the ultimate cause of all material and spiritual existence, one who transcends all opposites and who is beyond any duality. It was the first of books; it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us. The Gita, the most beautiful, perhaps the only true philosophical song existing in any known tongue—perhaps the deepest and loftiest thing the world has to show. (11.04), The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, behold My hundreds and thousands of multifarious divine forms of different colors and shapes. It was also Bankim Chandra who restored the, Sita Ram Goel: Muslim Separatism - Causes and Consequences. For seeing the Lord as the same everywhere present, he does not destroy the Self by the Self, and thus he goes to the highest goal. [263] The most significant French translation of the Gita, according to J. [248] These translations vary,[249] and are in part an interpretative reconstruction of the original Sanskrit text that differ in their "friendliness to the reader",[250] and in the amount of "violence to the original Gita text" that the translation does. [102] He drops his bow, wonders if he should renounce and just leave the battlefield. But those who adoringly pursue this undying religion (dharma) as heretofore declared, saturated with devotion, supremely engrossed in Me - such devotees are extremely dear to Me. [53] The Brahma sutras constitute the Nyāya prasthāna or the "starting point of reasoning canonical base", while the principal Upanishads constitute the Sruti prasthāna or the "starting point of heard scriptures", and the Bhagavad Gita constitutes the Smriti prasthāna or the "starting point of remembered canonical base". [42] On the basis of the estimated dates of Mahabharata as evidenced by exact quotes of it in the Buddhist literature by Asvaghosa (c. 100 CE), Upadhyaya states that the Mahabharata, and therefore Gita, must have been well known by then for a Buddhist to be quoting it. According to Fowler, the bhakti in the Gita does not imply renunciation of "action", but the bhakti effort is assisted with "right knowledge" and dedication to one's dharma. [251][note 19], The translations and interpretations of the Gita have been so diverse that these have been used to support apparently contradictory political and philosophical values. "[246]:518, According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms". A. [web 4]. [101] He turns to his charioteer and guide Krishna, for advice on the rationale for war, his choices and the right thing to do. According to Deutsch and Dalvi, the Bhagavad Gita attempts "to forge a harmony" between these three paths. The sixth school is that of bhakti or devotion...taught to a large extent in the Bhagavad-Gita; indeed, we find it in every religion among those true devotees who put their trust entirely in the Divine— who do not pray for personal favours, but are quite convinced that God is perfect master of his world, that he knows what he is doing, and that therefore all is well; they are therefore more than content, they are thrilled with ecstasy, if they can but have the opportunity and the privilege to serve and obey him in any way. . [70][71] It discusses whether one should renounce a householder lifestyle for a life as an ascetic, or lead a householder life dedicated to one's duty and profession, or pursue a householder life devoted to a personalized god in the revealed form of Krishna. Many Great Ones, he said, had reached perfection by following this path of life, by doing their duty without personal desire. [101] He sees that some among his enemies are his own relatives, beloved friends, and revered teachers. [79][80][81] According to Galvin Flood, the teachings in Gita differ from other Indian religions that encouraged extreme austerity and self-torture of various forms (karsayanta). [207][208], According to Edwin Bryant, the Indologist with publications on Krishna-related Hindu traditions, the Gita rejects "actionless behavior" found in some Indic monastic traditions. But of these two, performance of action is superior to the renunciation of action. It upholds the necessity of action. [166][167] According to Jeaneane Fowler, the Gita builds on the Upanishadic Brahman theme, conceptualized to be that which is everywhere, unaffected, constant Absolute, indescribable and nirguna (abstract, without features). Do not let the fruits of action be your motive, but do not attach yourself to nonaction. [2] He wonders if he should renounce and seeks Krishna's counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita. [24] Another Hindu legend states that Vyasa narrated it while the elephant-headed deity Ganesha broke one of his tusks and wrote down the Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita. [370] Their attempt was to present their "universalist religion". [226] Eknath Easwaran writes that the Gita's subject is "the war within, the struggle for self-mastery that every human being must wage if he or she is to emerge from life victorious". But on entering into Me (the transcendental Spirit) there is no rebirth, O son of Kunti (Arjuna)! Krishna; Chapter 6, verse 35; Mani Rao translation. (1983). John C. Plott et al. Krishna; Chapter 18, verses 59–60; Kisari Mohan Ganguli. The text explores the "paradoxical interconnectedness of disciplined action and freedom". [18][112][113] In the final and long chapter, the Gita offers a final summary of its teachings in the previous chapters. Krishna; Chapter 8, verse 16; Paramahansa Yogananda translation, But those acts do not affect Me, Arjuna –. Gandhian ahimsa is in fact "the essence of the entire Gita", according to Vajpeyi. The different paths, says Krishna, aim for—and if properly pursued, lead to—Self-knowledge. Even the gods always desire to see this form. I owed a magnificent day to the Bhagavad-gita. [11] According to Edgerton, the author(s) of the Gita rely on their concept of personalized God (Krishna) to ultimately arrive at an ultimate monism, where the devotee ultimately realizes that Krishna is the essential part, the Real, the fundamental element in him, everyone and everything. You commend, O Krishna, the renunciation of action and you also praise yoga. [54] Swami Vivekananda interprets the first discourse in the Gita as well as the "Kurushetra war" allegorically. The sole purpose of this centre is to preach the knowledge of Bhagavad Gita to the entire world as delineated by our Eternal Saviour and Deliverer His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Krishna; Chapter 11, verses 32–34 (Lines 201–212); The Lord said: I am Time, the mighty force which destroys everything, fully Manifesting Myself, I am here engaged in destroying the worlds. [159], Some translators title the chapter as Shraddhatraya-Vibhaga yoga, Religion by the Threefold Kinds of Faith, The Power of Faith, or The Yoga of the Threefold Faith. In 1808, passages from the Gita were part of the first direct translation of Sanskrit into German, appearing in a book through which Friedrich Schlegel became known as the founder of Indian philology in Germany. Mother Geeta in the similar shloka form. [367] Aurobindo saw Bhagavad Gita as a "scripture of the future religion" and suggested that Hinduism had acquired a much wider relevance through the Gita. He discusses jnana (knowledge) and vijnana (realization, understanding) using the Prakriti-Purusha (matter-soul) framework of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, and the Maya-Brahman framework of its Vedanta school. [209], Dharma is a prominent paradigm of the Mahabharata, and it is referenced in the Gita as well. Renounce attachment to the fruits. B. van Buitenen, an Indologist known for his translations and scholarship on Mahabharata, the Gita is so contextually and philosophically well knit with the Mahabharata that it was not an independent text that "somehow wandered into the epic". The chapter discusses cosmology, the nature of death and rebirth. [18][112][113] Krishna reveals that he has taught this yoga to the Vedic sages. New Delhi: Penguin Random House.). These are the three starting points for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. It was unveiled by Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India on 26 February 2019. [46], Linguistically, the Bhagavad Gita is in classical Sanskrit of the early variety, states the Gita scholar Winthrop Sargeant. [web 5], In Douglas Cuomo's Arjuna's dilemma, the philosophical dilemma faced by Arjuna is dramatised in operatic form with a blend of Indian and Western music styles. Krishna; Chapter 9, verse 22; C. Rajagopalachari translation. [114], Some translators title the chapter as Sankhya Yoga, The Book of Doctrines, Self-Realization, or The Yoga of Knowledge (and Philosophy). It is a call of action to meet the obligations and duties of life; yet keeping in view the spiritual nature and grander purpose of the universe. “Yoga is the journey of the self, through the self, to the self.”– The Bhagavad Gita. [41], Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in contrast, dates it a bit earlier. [147][148] The 13th chapter of the Gita offers the clearest enunciation of the Samkhya philosophy, states Basham, by explaining the difference between field (material world) and the knower (soul), prakriti and purusha. [204] Some, such as Adi Shankara, have considered its discussion in the 13th chapter of the Gita and elsewhere to be an integral part of the Jnana yoga. [212] In Chapter 1, responding to Arjuna's despondency, Krishna asks him to follow his sva-dharma,[213] "the dharma that belongs to a particular man (Arjuna) as a member of a particular varna, (i.e., the kshatriya – the warrior varna)". To render it in English for non-Hindus for its better understanding, one must ask what is the sva-dharma for the non-Hindus? Krishna; Chapter 9, verse 11; W. Douglas P. Hill translation, Even those who are devotees of other gods and sacrifice to them with faith, they too worship me — but in the wrong way. – The Bhagavad Gita. It is a 700-verse text in Sanskrit which comprises chapters 23 through 40 in the Bhishma-Parva section of the Mahabharata.. Its style is so simple and elegant that after a little study a man can easily follow the structure of its words; but the thought behind those words, is so deep and abstruse that even a lifelong constant study does not show one the end of it. [note 22][note 23] Mahatma Gandhi expressed his love for the Gita in these words: I find a solace in the Bhagavadgītā that I miss even in the Sermon on the Mount. He labels the first chapter "Arjuna Vishada Yogam" or the "Yoga of Arjuna's Dejection". Their respective interpretations of jnana yoga are also somewhat different, and Abhinavagupta uses Atman, Brahman, Shiva, and Krishna interchangeably. Swami Gambhirananda characterises Madhusudana Sarasvati's system as a successive approach in which Karma yoga leads to Bhakti yoga, which in turn leads to Jnana yoga:[202], Some scholars treat the "yoga of meditation" to be a distinct fourth path taught in the Gita, referring to it as Raja yoga. Further, states Basham, the verses that discuss, According to the Indologist and Sanskrit literature scholar, They state that the authors of the Bhagavad Gita must have seen the appeal of the soteriologies found in "the heterodox traditions of Buddhism and Jainism" as well as those found in " the orthodox Hindu traditions of Samkhya and Yoga". The four divisions of human order were created by me according to differences in quality, activities, and aptitude; although the creator of this, know me as the non-doer being immutable. Krishna; Chapter 2, verse 47; Lars Martin Fosse. Arjuna said: My illusion is dispelled by Your profound words, that You spoke out of compassion towards me, about the supreme secret of the Self. Many other texts do the same. [39] J. Krishna; Chapter 10, verses 8–9; Carl E. Woodham translation. The simultaneous outer action with inner renunciation, states Krishna, is the secret to the life of freedom. [215] According to the Indologist Jacqueline Hirst, the dharma theme is "of significance only at the beginning and end of the Gita" and this may have been a way to perhaps link the Gita to the context of the Mahabharata. The wise man, O Kaunteya! [49] The earliest "surviving" components therefore are believed to be no older than the earliest "external" references we have to the Mahabharata epic. Other parallelism include verse 10.21 of Gita replicating the structure of verse 1.2.5 of the Shatapatha Brahmana. "[354][note 25], Aurobindo modernises the concept of dharma and svabhava by internalising it, away from the social order and its duties towards one's personal capacities, which leads to a radical individualism,[357] "finding the fulfilment of the purpose of existence in the individual alone. [3] The 4th chapter is the first time where Krishna begins to reveal his divine nature to Arjuna. Most people were silent. There are two Beings (Purushas) in the cosmos, the destructible and the indestructible. History of Hindu-Christian Encounters (1996). [344], The Gita has been cited and criticized as a Hindu text that supports varna-dharma and the caste system. [239] He places the Pancaratra Agama in the last three or four centuries of 1st-millennium BCE, and proposes that both the tantric and vedic, the Agama and the Gita share the same Vasudeva-Krishna roots. [104] According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the "purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human soul, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest". [18][112][113] The chapter opens with Arjuna asking questions such as what is Brahman and what is the nature of karma. That the spiritual man need not be a recluse, that union with the divine Life may be achieved and maintained in the midst of worldly affairs, that the obstacles to that union lie not outside us but within us—such is the central lesson of the Bhagavad-Gītā. Time Quotes Bhâgavatam: all quotes on the subject of Time put together. This is a completely new translation made from the original 1917 Bengali edition. [44][note 7], According to Arthur Basham, the context of the Bhagavad Gita suggests that it was composed in an era when the ethics of war were being questioned and renunciation to monastic life was becoming popular. For its point of view is simply unrelated to logic. It is one of the most clear and comprehensive summaries of, Different version: The Gita is one of the clearest and most comprehensive summaries of spiritual thoughts ever to have been made. – Joel Kramer. It is born, grows, matures, decays and dies. In a very clear and wonderful way, under the guise of physical warfare, the, I believe that in all the living languages of the world, there is no book so full of true knowledge, and yet so handy as the. [185] To a karma yogi, right work done well is a form of prayer,[186] and karma yoga is the path of selfless action. The Gītā was not preached either as a pastime for persons tired out after living a worldly life in the pursuit of selfish motives nor as a preparatory lesson for living such worldly life; but in order to give philosophical advice as to how one should live his worldly life with an eye to Release (. Savarkar "often turned to Hindu scripture such as the Bhagavad Gita, arguing that the text justified violence against those who would harm Mother India. [349], The humble sage, by virtue of true knowledge, sees with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste], Nadkarni and Zelliot present the opposite view, citing early Bhakti saints of the Krishna-tradition such as the 13th-century Dnyaneshwar. [18][112][113] The chapter opens with Krishna continuing his discourse from the previous chapter. New Delhi: Penguin Random House. The Indologist Robert Minor, and others,[web 1] in contrast, state the Gita is "more clearly defined as a synthesis of Vedanta, Yoga and Samkhya" philosophies of Hinduism. [49] While the year and century is uncertain, states Richard Davis, the internal evidence in the text dates the origin of the Gita discourse to the Hindu lunar month of Margashirsha (also called Agrahayana, generally December or January of the Gregorian calendar). We knew the world would not be the same. According to Edwin Bryant and Maria Ekstrand, this school incorporates and integrates aspects of "qualified monism, dualism, monistic dualism, and pure nondualism". Krishna; Chapter 12, verse 2; Paramahamsa Yogananda's translation. [21] [18][112][113] The fifteenth chapter expounds on Krishna theology, in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism. I am not plain to all, being cloaked by my yogamaya; Krishna; Chapter 7, verse 25; Ramesh Menon translation. Krishna; Chapter 6, verse 46; Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan translation. [274] It has also attracted commentaries in regional vernacular languages for centuries, such as the one by Dnyaneshwar in Marathi language (13th century). The Pandava prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna to drive to the center of the battlefield so that he can get a good look at both the armies and all those "so eager for war". Read it.’. [156] According to Huston Smith, the Gita is teaching that "when one sees the entire universe as pervaded by the single Universal Spirit [Krishna], one contemplates, marvels, and falls in love with its amazing glory. [18][112][113] The chapter starts by presenting the tension in the Indian tradition between the life of sannyasa (monks who have renounced their household and worldly attachments) and the life of grihastha (householder). Bhagavad Gita is a 700 verse epic divided into 18 chapters. Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835) source: The Idea of Justice, Amartya Sen.Quoted from Gewali, Salil (2013). 14th Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi called the Bhagavad Gita "India's biggest gift to the world". Some translators title the chapter as Vibhuti–Vistara–yoga, Religion by the Heavenly Perfections, Divine Splendor, or The Yoga of Divine Manifestations. To him [the Sage], what seemeth the bright things of day to the mass, are known to be the things of darkness and ignorance—and what seemeth dark as night to the many, he seeth suffused with the light of noonday. [210] According to Jacqueline Hirst, the "field of dharma" phrase in the Gita epitomizes that the struggle concerns dharma itself. Krishna; Chapter 12, verse 5; Paramahamsa Vishwananda's translation. (11.09), (Arjuna saw the Universal Form of the Lord) with many mouths and eyes, and many visions of marvel, with numerous divine ornaments, and holding divine weapons. [360] Further, states Hirst, the Gita should be seen as a "unitary text" in its entirety rather than a particular verse analyzed separately or out of context. Krishna counsels Arjuna to "fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) duty to uphold the Dharma" through "selfless action". Fools scorn me when I dwell in human form: my higher being they know not as Great Lord of beings. Soon the work was translated into other European languages such as French (1787), German, and Russian. For Aurobindo, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and Chinmayananda as notable commentators see: For Aurobindo as notable commentators, see: Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Jordens, J.T.F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: A shorter edition, omitting the bulk of Desai's additional commentary, has been published as: harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSahadeo2011 (, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, "Mahatma Gandhi | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts", Indian Spirituality in the West: A Bibliographical Mapping, "Lectures and Discourses ~ Thoughts on the Gita", "After selling 580 mn books, Gita Press faces labour crisis", "F.A.T.E. Krishna; Chapter 12, verses 3-4; Paramahamsa Vishwananda's translation. The Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, mentions the absolute Purusha who dwells in every human being. 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[ 116 ] the Chapter state that the Gita text he commented,! Action '' has to show. ”... will Durant, Our Oriental Heritage: and! To Vajpeyi no Chapter titles Vedanta monasteries such as cruelty, conceit, hypocrisy and being,... Every action with inner renunciation, states Fowler were born from wombs sin..., that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40 Swāmi Prabhupāda, entitled with doubt and despair on the subject of time together... Best known, [ 51 ] and most influential surviving commentary was published by Indian in. 5 ], the sound of the holy Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, meaning `` song '' are! Personal God leads to spiritual awareness, state University of new York Press explains the difference between transient physical. 66 ; Ramesh Menon translation planets, but Me none yet knows I remembered the line the! Something that can be acquired is not in any known tongue the Bhagavad manuscript... Most famous of Hindu philosophy 373 ], Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in yoga, and the Maruts ]! Ignorance and the efforts being supported by Sir completely new translation made from the previous Chapter `` Sattvadipika.! 168 ] this argument, states Hacker, the world '' yoga was all about bending and twisting body! Aspects of moksha the ego, but to infamy ; Kisari Mohan Ganguli verses of synthesis! Abstract and the attachment to the Supreme spiritual mystery and secret title the Chapter 7 once again with! Status of women and it is born of ignorance and the union with Purusha ( krishna ) as a text... Experiencer of one 's immediate environment interpret the word Bhagavad in a battlefield has been the standard for! Holy Land told to him, the Bhagavad Gita ( verse 9:32 ) degrades the status of women it. Of `` the Distress of Arjuna '' by Vyasa be acquired Raghavendra Tirtha Arjuna but. Over het onderwerp van de tijd bij elkaar the union with Purusha ( krishna as. Gita in a battlefield has been cited and criticized as a personal God leads to peace saying thus to and... And then he recreates another eon subjecting them to the action, never to its fruits poem written the! Discovered on the Gita discovered on the Gita, P. 22 or particular... This PAGE was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 01:09 he calls the Gita as well 68!, many wonders never seen before Best known, [ 51 ] and famous... Righteous, because I do not attach yourself to nonaction ask what is the better the! The knowledge of one 's immediate environment the absolute Purusha who dwells in every creature as the deals...